Principais artigos

Metlay JP, Waterer GW, Long AC, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. An official clinical practice guideline of the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Oct 1;200(7):e45-e67.Texto completo  Resumo

Artigos de referência

1. Simonetti AF, Viasus D, Garcia-Vidal C, et al. Management of community-acquired pneumonia in older adults. Ther Adv Infect Dis. 2014;2:3-16.Texto completo  Resumo

2. Masiá M, Gutiérrez F, Padilla S, et al. Clinical characterisation of pneumonia caused by atypical pathogens combining classic and novel predictors. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007;13:53-61.Texto completo  Resumo

3. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Lower respiratory infections — level 3 cause. 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

4. GBD 2019 Diseases and Injuries Collaborators. Global burden of 369 diseases and injuries in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. Lancet. 2020 Oct 17:396(10258):1204-22.Texto completo  Resumo

5. Jain S, Self WH, Wunderink RG, et al. Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among US adults. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 30;373(5):415-27.Texto completo  Resumo

6. Kochanek KD, Murphy SL, Xu J, et al. Deaths: final data for 2016. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2018 Jul;67(5):1-76.Texto completo  Resumo

7. McLaughlin JM, Khan FL, Thoburn EA, et al. Rates of hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia among US adults: a systematic review. Vaccine. 2020 Jan 22;38(4):741-51.Texto completo  Resumo

8. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Pneumonia in adults: diagnosis and management. Sep 2019 [internet publication]. WITHDRAWN during COVID-19 pandemic.Texto completo

9. Rice LB. Antimicrobial resistance in gram-positive bacteria. Am J Med. 2006 Jun;119(suppl 1):S11-9. Resumo

10. Cillóniz C, Ewig S, Polverino E, et al. Microbial aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia and its relation to severity. Thorax. 2011 Apr;66(4):340-6.Texto completo  Resumo

11. Cillóniz C, Ewig S, Polverino E, et al. Community-acquired pneumonia in outpatients: aetiology and outcomes. Eur Respir J. 2012 Oct;40(4):931-8.Texto completo  Resumo

12. Cilloniz C, Torres A, Polverino E, et al. Community-acquired lung respiratory infections in HIV-infected patients: microbial aetiology and outcome. Eur Respir J. 2014 Jun;43(6):1698-708.Texto completo  Resumo

13. Almirall J, Boixeda R, Bolíbar I, et al. Differences in the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia according to site of care: a population-based study. Respir Med. 2007 Oct;101(10):2168-75.Texto completo  Resumo

14. Alimi Y, Lim WS, Lansbury L, et al. Systematic review of respiratory viral pathogens identified in adults with community-acquired pneumonia in Europe. J Clin Virol. 2017 Oct;95:26-35. Resumo

15. Almirall J, Bolíbar I, Vidal J, et al. Epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia in adults: a population-based study. Eur Respir J. 2000 Apr;15(4):757-63.Texto completo  Resumo

16. Torres A, Cillóniz C, Blasi F, et al. Burden of pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia in adults across Europe: a literature review. Respir Med. 2018 Apr;137:6-13. Resumo

17. Marchello C, Dale AP, Thai TN, et al. Prevalence of atypical pathogens in patients with cough and community-acquired pneumonia: a meta-analysis. Ann Fam Med. 2016 Nov;14(6):552-66.Texto completo  Resumo

18. Arnold FW, Summersgill JT, Ramirez JA. Role of atypical pathogens in the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Dec;37(6):819-28. Resumo

19. Metlay JP, Waterer GW, Long AC, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of adults with community-acquired pneumonia. An official clinical practice guideline of the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Oct 1;200(7):e45-e67.Texto completo  Resumo

20. Torres A, Barberán J, Falguera M, et al. Multidisciplinary guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia [in Spanish]. Med Clin (Barc). 2013 Mar 2;140(5):223.e1-223.e19. Resumo

21. Mandell LA, Marrie TJ, Grossman RF, et al; The Canadian Community-Acquired Pneumonia Working Group. Canadian guidelines for the initial management of community-acquired pneumonia: an evidence-based update by the Canadian Infectious Diseases Society and the Canadian Thoracic Society. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Aug;31(2):383-421.Texto completo  Resumo

22. Hogerwerf L, DE Gier B, Baan B, et al. Chlamydia psittaci (psittacosis) as a cause of community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiol Infect. 2017 Nov;145(15):3096-105. Resumo

23. Spoorenberg SM, Bos WJ, van Hannen EJ, et al. Chlamydia psittaci: a relevant cause of community-acquired pneumonia in two Dutch hospitals. Neth J Med. 2016 Feb;74(2):75-81. Resumo

24. Cillóniz C, Dominedò C, Nicolini A, et al. PES pathogens in severe community-acquired pneumonia. Microorganisms. 2019 Feb 12;7(2):E49.Texto completo  Resumo

25. Prina E, Ranzani OT, Polverino E, et al. Risk factors associated with potentially antibiotic-resistant pathogens in community-acquired pneumonia. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2015 Feb;12(2):153-60. Resumo

26. Jokinen C, Heiskanen L, Juvonen H, et al. Microbial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in the adult population of 4 municipalities in eastern Finland. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Apr 15;32(8):1141-54.Texto completo  Resumo

27. Jennings LC, Anderson TP, Beynon KA, et al. Incidence and characteristics of viral community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Thorax. 2008 Jan;63(1):42-8.Texto completo  Resumo

28. Burk M, El-Kersh K, Saad M, et al. Viral infection in community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir Rev. 2016 Jun;25(140):178-88.Texto completo  Resumo

29. Cillóniz C, Dominedò C, Magdaleno D, et al. Pure viral sepsis secondary to community-acquired pneumonia in adults: risk and prognostic factors. J Infect Dis. 2019 Aug 30;220(7):1166-71. Resumo

30. Wunderink RG, Waterer G. Advances in the causes and management of community acquired pneumonia in adults. BMJ. 2017 Jul 10;358:j2471. Resumo

31. Johansson N, Kalin M, Tiveljung-Lindell A, et al. Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia: increased microbiological yield with new diagnostic methods. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Jan 15;50(2):202-9.Texto completo  Resumo

32. Alcón A, Fàbregas N, Torres A. Pathophysiology of pneumonia. Clin Chest Med. 2005 Mar;26(1):39-46. Resumo

33. Torres A, Peetermans WE, Viegi G, et al. Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in adults in Europe: a literature review. Thorax. 2013 Nov;68(11):1057-65.Texto completo  Resumo

34. Rumbak MJ. The pathogenesis of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Oct;23(5):427-34. Resumo

35. Dickson RP, Erb-Downward JR, Huffnagle GB. Towards an ecology of the lung: new conceptual models of pulmonary microbiology and pneumonia pathogenesis. Lancet Respir Med. 2014 Mar;2(3):238-46.Texto completo  Resumo

36. Wu BG, Segal LN. The lung microbiome and its role in pneumonia. Clin Chest Med. 2018 Dec;39(4):677-89. Resumo

37. Man WH, de Steenhuijsen Piters WA, Bogaert D. The microbiota of the respiratory tract: gatekeeper to respiratory health. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2017 May;15(5):259-70. Resumo

38. Cillóniz C, Polverino E, Ewig S, et al. Impact of age and comorbidity on cause and outcome in community-acquired pneumonia. Chest. 2013 Sep;144(3):999-1007. Resumo

39. Polverino E, Dambrava P, Cillóniz C, et al. Nursing home-acquired pneumonia: a 10 year single-centre experience. Thorax. 2010 Apr;65(4):354-9.Texto completo  Resumo

40. Sund-Levander M, Ortqvist A, Grodzinsky E, et al. Morbidity, mortality and clinical presentation of nursing home-acquired pneumonia in a Swedish population. Scand J Infect Dis. 2003;35(5):306-10. Resumo

41. Molinos L, Clemente MG, Miranda B, et al. Community-acquired pneumonia in patients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Infect. 2009 Jun;58(6):417-24. Resumo

42. Kohlhammer Y, Schwartz M, Raspe H, et al. Risk factors for community acquired pneumonia (CAP): a systematic review [in German]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2005 Feb 25;130(8):381-6. Resumo

43. Garcia-Vidal C, Ardanuy C, Tubau F, et al. Pneumococcal pneumonia presenting with septic shock: host- and pathogen-related factors and outcomes. Thorax. 2010 Jan;65(1):77-81. Resumo

44. Gordin FM, Roediger MP, Girard PM, et al. Pneumonia in HIV-infected persons: increased risk with cigarette smoking and treatment interruption. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Sep 15;178(6):630-6. Resumo

45. Bello S, Menéndez R, Torres A, et al. Tobacco smoking increases the risk for death from pneumococcal pneumonia. Chest. 2014 Oct;146(4):1029-37. Resumo

46. Baskaran V, Murray RL, Hunter A, et al. Effect of tobacco smoking on the risk of developing community acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2019;14(7):e0220204.Texto completo  Resumo

47. Almirall J, Serra-Prat M, Bolíbar I, et al. Passive smoking at home is a risk factor for community-acquired pneumonia in older adults: a population-based case-control study. BMJ Open. 2014 Jun 13;4(6):e005133.Texto completo  Resumo

48. Simou E, Britton J, Leonardi-Bee J. Alcohol and the risk of pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2018 Aug 22;8(8):e022344.Texto completo  Resumo

49. Samokhvalov AV, Irving HM, Rehm J. Alcohol consumption as a risk factor for pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiol Infect. 2010 Dec;138(12):1789-95. Resumo

50. Liu C, Cao Y, Lin J, et al. Oral care measures for preventing nursing home-acquired pneumonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Sep 27;9:CD012416.Texto completo  Resumo

51. Abramowitz J, Thakkar P, Isa A, et al. Adverse event reporting for proton pump inhibitor therapy: an overview of systematic reviews. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016 Oct;155(4):547-54. Resumo

52. Lambert AA, Lam JO, Paik JJ, et al. Risk of community-acquired pneumonia with outpatient proton-pump inhibitor therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015 Jun 4;10(6):e0128004.Texto completo  Resumo

53. Eom CS, Jeon CY, Lim JW, et al. Use of acid-suppressive drugs and risk of pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2011 Feb 22;183(3):310-9.Texto completo  Resumo

54. Liapikou A, Cilloniz C, Torres A, et al. Drugs that increase the risk of community-acquired pneumonia: a narrative review. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2018 Oct;17(10):991-1003. Resumo

55. Almirall J, Bolíbar I, Serra-Prat M, et al. New evidence of risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia: a population-based study. Eur Respir J. 2008 Jun;31(6):1274-84.Texto completo  Resumo

56. Schnoor M, Klante T, Beckmann M, et al. Risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in German adults: the impact of children in the household. Epidemiol Infect. 2007 Nov;135(8):1389-97.Texto completo  Resumo

57. Teepe J, Grigoryan L, Verheij TJ. Determinants of community-acquired pneumonia in children and young adults in primary care. Eur Respir J. 2010 May;35(5):1113-7.Texto completo  Resumo

58. Cillóniz C, García-Vidal C, Moreno A, et al. Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in adult HIV-infected patients. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2018 Jul;16(7):579-88. Resumo

59. Yende S, van der Poll T, Lee M, et al. The influence of pre-existing diabetes mellitus on the host immune response and outcome of pneumonia: analysis of two multicentre cohort studies. Thorax. 2010 Oct;65(10):870-7.Texto completo  Resumo

60. Kornum JB, Thomsen RW, Riis A, et al. Diabetes, glycemic control, and risk of hospitalization with pneumonia: a population-based case-control study. Diabetes Care. 2008 Aug;31(8):1541-5.Texto completo  Resumo

61. Kang CI, Song JH, Kim SH, et al. Risk factors and pathogenic significance of bacteremic pneumonia in adult patients with community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia. J Infect. 2013 Jan;66(1):34-40. Resumo

62. From S, Targowski T. The risk factors of death in community-acquired pneumonia [in Polish]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2002 Jun;12(72):455-7. Resumo

63. Chidiac C, Che D, Pires-Cronenberger S, et al. Factors associated with hospital mortality in community-acquired legionellosis in France. Eur Respir J. 2012 Apr;39(4):963-70.Texto completo  Resumo

64. Fernández J, Navasa M, Gómez J, et al. Bacterial infections in cirrhosis: epidemiological changes with invasive procedures and norfloxacin prophylaxis. Hepatology. 2002 Jan;35(1):140-8.Texto completo  Resumo

65. Cillóniz C, Ewig S, Polverino E, et al. Pulmonary complications of pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia: incidence, predictors, and outcomes. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012 Nov;18(11):1134-42.Texto completo  Resumo

66. Edelman EJ, Gordon KS, Crothers K, et al. Association of prescribed opioids with increased risk of community-acquired pneumonia among patients with and without HIV. JAMA Intern Med. 2019 Mar 1;179(3):297-304. Resumo

67. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended adult immunization schedule for ages 19 years or older, United States, 2022. Feb 2022. [internet publication].Texto completo

68. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Use of 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and 20-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine among U.S. adults: updated recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices . Jan 2022 [internet publication].Texto completo

69. Padhani ZA, Moazzam Z, Ashraf A, et al. Vitamin C supplementation for prevention and treatment of pneumonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Nov 18;11:CD013134.Texto completo  Resumo

70. Public Health England. Insufficient evidence for vitamin D preventing or treating ARTIs. Jul 2020 [internet publication].Texto completo

71. Barbagelata E, Cillóniz C, Dominedò C, et al. Gender differences in community-acquired pneumonia. Minerva Med. 2020 Apr;111(2):153-65. Resumo

72. Niederman MS. Imaging for the management of community-acquired pneumonia: what to do if the chest radiograph is clear. Chest. 2018 Mar;153(3):583-5. Resumo

73. Qaseem A, Etxeandia-Ikobaltzeta I, Mustafa RA, et al. Appropriate use of point-of-careultrasonography in patients with acute dyspnea in emergency department or inpatientsettings: a clinical guideline from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2021Jul;174(7):985-93.Texto completo  Resumo

74. Reissig A, Gramegna A, Aliberti S. The role of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis and follow-up of community-acquired pneumonia. Eur J Intern Med. 2012 Jul;23(5):391-7. Resumo

75. Llamas-Álvarez AM, Tenza-Lozano EM, Latour-Pérez J. Accuracy of lung ultrasonography in the diagnosis of pneumonia in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. Chest. 2017 Feb;151(2):374-82. Resumo

76. Orso D, Guglielmo N, Copetti R. Lung ultrasound in diagnosing pneumonia in the emergency department: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Emerg Med. 2018 Oct;25(5):312-21. Resumo

77. Gartlehner G, Wagner G, Affengruber L, et al. Point-of-care ultrasonography in patients with acute dyspnea: an evidence report for a clinical practice guideline by the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2021 Jul;174(7):967-76.Texto completo  Resumo

78. Claessens YE, Debray MP, Tubach F, et al. Early chest computed tomography scan to assist diagnosis and guide treatment decision for suspected community-acquired pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Oct 15;192(8):974-82. Resumo

79. Del Rio-Pertuz G, Gutiérrez JF, Triana AJ, et al. Usefulness of sputum gram stain for etiologic diagnosis in community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2019 May 10;19(1):403.Texto completo  Resumo

80. Menéndez R, Cavalcanti M, Reyes S, et al. Markers of treatment failure in hospitalised community acquired pneumonia. Thorax. 2008 May;63(5):447-52.Texto completo  Resumo

81. Woodhead M. New guidelines for the management of adult lower respiratory tract infections. Eur Respir J. 2011 Dec;38(6):1250-1.Texto completo  Resumo

82. Menéndez R, Sahuquillo-Arce JM, Reyes S, et al. Cytokine activation patterns and biomarkers are influenced by microorganisms in community-acquired pneumonia. Chest. 2012 Jun;141(6):1537-45. Resumo

83. Ugajin M, Yamaki K, Hirasawa N, et al. Predictive values of semi-quantitative procalcitonin test and common biomarkers for the clinical outcomes of community-acquired pneumonia. Respir Care. 2014 Apr;59(4):564-73.Texto completo  Resumo

84. Sirvent JM, Vidaur L, Gonzalez S, et al. Microscopic examination of intracellular organisms in protected bronchoalveolar mini-lavage fluid for the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Chest. 2003 Feb;123(2):518-23. Resumo

85. Murdoch DR. How recent advances in molecular tests could impact the diagnosis of pneumonia. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2016;16(5):533-40. Resumo

86. Evans SE, Jennerich AL, Azar MM, et al. Nucleic acid-based testing for noninfluenza viral pathogens in adults with suspected community-acquired pneumonia. An official American Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021 May 1;203(9):1070-87.Texto completo  Resumo

87. Fine MJ, Auble TE, Yealy DM, et al. A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jan 23;336(4):243-50.Texto completo  Resumo

88. Lim WS, van der Eerden MM, Laing R, et al. Defining community acquired pneumonia severity on presentation to hospital: an international derivation and validation study. Thorax. 2003 May;58(5):377-82.Texto completo  Resumo

89. González-Moraleja J, Sesma P, González C, et al. What is the cost of inappropriate admission of pneumonia patients? [in Spanish]. Arch Bronconeumol. 1999 Jul-Aug;35(7):312-6. Resumo

90. Smith MD, Fee C, et al. Clinical policy: critical issues in the management of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with community-acquired pneumonia. Ann Emerg Med. 2021 Jan;77(1):e1-57. Resumo

91. España PP, Capelastegui A, Gorordo I, et al. Development and validation of a clinical prediction rule for severe community-acquired pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Dec 1;174(11):1249-56.Texto completo  Resumo

92. Charles PG, Wolfe R, Whitby M, et al. SMART-COP: a tool for predicting the need for intensive respiratory or vasopressor support in community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Aug 1;47(3):375-84.Texto completo  Resumo

93. Restrepo MI, Mortensen EM, Rello J, et al. Late admission to the ICU in patients with community-acquired pneumonia is associated with higher mortality. Chest. 2010 Mar;137(3):552-7.Texto completo  Resumo

94. Brown SM, Jones JP, Aronsky D, et al. Relationships among initial hospital triage, disease progression and mortality in community-acquired pneumonia. Respirology. 2012 Nov;17(8):1207-13.Texto completo  Resumo

95. Phua J, Ngerng WJ, Lim TK. The impact of a delay in intensive care unit admission for community-acquired pneumonia. Eur Respir J. 2010 Oct;36(4):826-33.Texto completo  Resumo

96. Aliberti S, Ramirez J, Cosentini R, et al. Low CURB-65 is of limited value in deciding discharge of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Respir Med. 2011 Nov;105(11):1732-8.Texto completo  Resumo

97. Sharp AL, Jones JP, Wu I, et al. CURB-65 performance among admitted and discharged emergency department patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Acad Emerg Med. 2016 Apr;23(4):400-5. Resumo

98. Niederman M. In the clinic: community-acquired pneumonia. Ann Intern Med. 2009 Oct 6;151(7):ITC4-2-ITC4. Resumo

99. Halm EA, Teirstein AS. Clinical practice: management of community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2002 Dec 19;347(25):2039-45. Resumo

100. Furuya EY, Lowy FD. Antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in the community setting. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2006 Jan;4(1):36-45. Resumo

101. Lynch JP 3rd, Zhanel GG. Streptococcus pneumoniae: does antimicrobial resistance matter? Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Apr;30(2):210-38. Resumo

102. Fenoll A, Granizo JJ, Aguilar L, et al. Temporal trends of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes and antimicrobial resistance patterns in Spain from 1979 to 2007. J Clin Microbiol. 2009 Apr;47(4):1012-20.Texto completo  Resumo

103. Dagan R, Klugman KP. Impact of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines on antibiotic resistance. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008 Dec;8(12):785-95. Resumo

104. Aspa J, Rajas O, de Castro FR. Pneumococcal antimicrobial resistance: therapeutic strategy and management in community-acquired pneumonia. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2008 Feb;9(2):229-41. Resumo

105. O'Driscoll BR, Howard LS, Earis J, et al. British Thoracic Society Guideline for oxygen use in adults in healthcare and emergency settings. BMJ Open Respir Res. 2017;4(1):e000170.Texto completo  Resumo

106. Naucler P, Strålin K. Routine atypical antibiotic coverage is not necessary in hospitalised patients with non-severe community-acquired pneumonia. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2016 Aug;48(2):224-5. Resumo

107. Postma DF, van Werkhoven CH, Oosterheert JJ. Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization: rational decision making and interpretation of guidelines. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2017 May;23(3):204-10. Resumo

108. File TM Jr, Marrie TJ. Does empiric therapy for atypical pathogens improve outcomes for patients with CAP? Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2013 Mar;27(1):99-114. Resumo

109. File TM Jr, Eckburg PB, Talbot GH, et al. Macrolide therapy for community-acquired pneumonia due to atypical pathogens: outcome assessment at an early time point. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2017 Aug;50(2):247-51. Resumo

110. Eljaaly K, Alshehri S, Aljabri A, et al. Clinical failure with and without empiric atypical bacteria coverage in hospitalized adults with community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2017 Jun 2;17(1):385.Texto completo  Resumo

111. Food and Drug Administration. FDA reinforces safety information about serious low blood sugar levels and mental health side effects with fluoroquinolone antibiotics; requires label changes. Jul 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

112. Food and Drug Administration. FDA warns about increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta blood vessel with fluoroquinolone antibiotics in certain patients. Dec 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

113. European Medicines Agency. Quinolone- and fluoroquinolone-containing medicinal products. Mar 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

114. Garnacho-Montero J, Barrero-García I, Gómez-Prieto MG, et al. Severe community-acquired pneumonia: current management and future therapeutic alternatives. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2018 Sep;16(9):667-77. Resumo

115. Uranga A, España PP, Bilbao A, et al. Duration of antibiotic treatment in community-acquired pneumonia: a multicenter randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Sep 1;176(9):1257-65. Resumo

116. Lee RA, Centor RM, Humphrey LL, et al. Appropriate use of short-course antibiotics in common infections: best practice advice from the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2021 Jun;174(6):822-7.Texto completo  Resumo

117. Vaughn VM, Flanders SA, Snyder A, et al. Excess antibiotic treatment duration and adverse events in patients hospitalized with pneumonia: a multihospital cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2019 Aug 6;171(3):153-63. Resumo

118. Lan SH, Lai CC, Chang SP, et al. Five-day antibiotic treatment for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2020 Dec;23:94-9.Texto completo  Resumo

119. Dinh A, Ropers J, Duran C, et al. Discontinuing β-lactam treatment after 3 days for patients with community-acquired pneumonia in non-critical care wards (PTC): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2021 Mar 27;397(10280):1195-203. Resumo

120. Siemieniuk RA, Meade MO, Alonso-Coello P, et al. Corticosteroid therapy for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Oct 6;163(7):519-28. Resumo

121. Bi J, Yang J, Wang Y, Yao C, et al. Efficacy and safety of adjunctive corticosteroids therapy for severe community-acquired pneumonia in adults: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2016 Nov 15;11(11):e0165942.Texto completo  Resumo

122. Briel M, Spoorenberg SMC, Snijders D, et al. Corticosteroids in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia: systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Jan 18;66(3):346-54. Resumo

123. Stern A, Skalsky K, Avni T, et al. Corticosteroids for pneumonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Dec 13;12:CD007720.Texto completo  Resumo

124. Wu WF, Fang Q, He GJ. Efficacy of corticosteroid treatment for severe community-acquired pneumonia: a meta-analysis. Am J Emerg Med. 2018 Feb;36(2):179-84. Resumo

125. Huang J, Guo J, Li H, et al. Efficacy and safety of adjunctive corticosteroids therapy for patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Mar;98(13):e14636.Texto completo  Resumo

126. Jiang S, Liu T, Hu Y, et al. Efficacy and safety of glucocorticoids in the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia: a meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Jun;98(26):e16239.Texto completo  Resumo

127. Aliberti S, Blasi F. Clinical stability versus clinical failure in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2012 Jun;33(3):284-91. Resumo

128. Menendez R, Torres A. Treatment failure in community-acquired pneumonia. Chest. 2007 Oct;132(4):1348-55. Resumo

129. Schuetz P, Wirz Y, Sager R, et al. Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Oct 12;(10):CD007498.Texto completo  Resumo

130. Schuetz P, Wirz Y, Sager R, et al. Effect of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment on mortality in acute respiratory infections: a patient level meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Jan;18(1):95-107. Resumo

131. Lam SW, Bauer SR, Fowler R, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of procalcitonin-guidance versus usual care for antimicrobial management in critically ill patients: focus on subgroups based on antibiotic initiation, cessation, or mixed strategies. Crit Care Med. 2018 May;46(5):684-90. Resumo

132. Huang DT, Yealy DM, Filbin MR, et al. Procalcitonin-guided use of antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infection. N Engl J Med. 2018 Jul 19;379(3):236-49.Texto completo  Resumo

133. Schuetz P, Bolliger R, Merker M, et al. Procalcitonin-guided antibiotic therapy algorithms for different types of acute respiratory infections based on previous trials. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2018 Jul;16(7):555-64. Resumo

134. Soar J, Böttiger BW, Carli P, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2021: adult advanced life support. Resuscitation. 2021 Apr;161:115-51.Texto completo  Resumo

135. Colquhoun MC, Handley AJ, Evans TR, eds. ABC of resuscitation. 5th ed. Wiley-Blackwell; 2004.

136. Chrimes N, Higgs A, Hagberg CA, et al. Preventing unrecognised oesophageal intubation: a consensus guideline from the Project for Universal Management of Airways and international airway societies. Anaesthesia. 2022 Aug 17 [Epub ahead of print].Texto completo  Resumo

137. Kusminsky RE. Complications of central venous catheterization. J Am Coll Surg. 2007 Apr;204(4):681-96. Resumo

138. McGee DC, Gould MK. Preventing complications of central venous catheterization. N Engl J Med. 2003 Mar 20;348(12):1123-33.Texto completo  Resumo

139. Smith RN, Nolan JP. Central venous catheters. BMJ. 2013 Nov 11;347:f6570. Resumo

140. Reich DL. Monitoring in anesthesia and perioperative care. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2011.

141. Abbott Northwestern Hospital Internal Medicine Residency. Internal jugular central venous line. 2015 [internet publication].Texto completo

142. Bishop L, Dougherty L, Bodenham A, et al. Guidelines on the insertion and management of central venous access devices in adults. Int J Lab Hematol. 2007 Aug;29(4):261-78. Resumo

143. Practice guidelines for central venous access 2020: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Central Venous Access. Anesthesiology. 2020 Jan;132(1):8-43.Texto completo  Resumo

144. Fletcher SJ, Bodenham AR. Safe placement of central venous catheters: where should the tip of the catheter lie? Br J Anaesth. 2000 Aug;85(2):188-91.Texto completo  Resumo

145. Gibson F, Bodenham A. Misplaced central venous catheters: applied anatomy and practical management. Br J Anaesth. 2013 Mar;110(3):333-46.Texto completo  Resumo

146. Schuster M, Nave H, Piepenbrock S, et al. The carina as a landmark in central venous catheter placement. Br J Anaesth. 2000 Aug;85(2):192-4.Texto completo  Resumo

147. Webster J, Osborne S, Rickard CM, et al. Clinically-indicated replacement versus routine replacement of peripheral venous catheters. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 23;(1):CD007798.Texto completo  Resumo

148. Dillon C, Guarascio AJ, Covvey JR. Lefamulin: a promising new pleuromutilin antibiotic in the pipeline. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2019 Jan;17(1):5-15. Resumo

149. Paukner S, Gelone SP, Arends SJR, et al. Antibacterial activity of lefamulin against pathogens most commonly causing community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2015-2016). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Mar 27;63(4):e02161-18.Texto completo  Resumo

150. Veve MP, Wagner JL. Lefamulin: review of a promising novel pleuromutilin antibiotic. Pharmacotherapy. 2018 Sep;38(9):935-46. Resumo

151. File TM Jr, Goldberg L, Das A, et al. Efficacy and safety of IV-to-oral lefamulin, a pleuromutilin antibiotic, for treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: the phase 3 LEAP 1 trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Nov 13;69(11):1856-67.Texto completo  Resumo

152. Alexander E, Goldberg L, Das AF, et al. Oral lefamulin vs moxifloxacin for early clinical response among adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia: the LEAP 2 randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2019;322(17):1661-71. Resumo

153. Chahine EB, Sucher AJ. Lefamulin: the first systemic pleuromutilin antibiotic. Ann Pharmacother. 2020 Dec;54(12):1203-14. Resumo

154. Study to compare delafloxacin to moxifloxacin for the treatment of adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (DEFINE-CABP). Jul 2019 [internet publication].Texto completo

155. Stets R, Popescu M, Gonong JR, et al. Omadacycline for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 2019 Feb 7;380(6):517-27.Texto completo  Resumo

156. Nicholson SC, Welte T, File TM Jr, et al. A randomised, double-blind trial comparing ceftobiprole medocaril with ceftriaxone with or without linezolid for the treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalisation. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2012 Mar;39(3):240-6. Resumo

157. Chang SP, Lee HZ, Lai CC, et al. The efficacy and safety of nemonoxacin compared with levofloxacin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: a systemic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Infect Drug Resist. 2019 Feb 14;12:433-8.Texto completo  Resumo

158. Oldach D, Clark K, Schranz J, et al. Randomized, double-blind, multicenter phase 2 study comparing the efficacy and safety of oral solithromycin (CEM-101) to those of oral levofloxacin in the treatment of patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Jun;57(6):2526-34.Texto completo  Resumo

159. File TM Jr, Rewerska B, Vucinic-Mihailovic V, et al. SOLITAIRE-IV: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter study comparing the efficacy and safety of intravenous-to-oral solithromycin to intravenous-to-oral moxifloxacin for treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Oct 15;63(8):1007-16.Texto completo  Resumo

160. Grudzinska FS, Dosanjh DP, Parekh D, et al. Statin therapy in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Med (Lond). 2017 Oct;17(5):403-7.Texto completo  Resumo

161. Wang ST, Sun XF. Role of statins in treatment and prevention of community-acquired pneumonia: a meta-analysis. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2018 Feb 28;40(1):30-40. Resumo

162. Luna HI, Pankey G. The utility of blood culture in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Ochsner J. 2001 Apr;3(2):85-93.Texto completo  Resumo

163. Torres A, Cillóniz C, Ferrer M, et al. Bacteraemia and antibiotic-resistant pathogens in community acquired pneumonia: risk and prognosis. Eur Respir J. 2015 May;45(5):1353-63. Resumo

164. Sligl WI, Marrie TJ. Severe community-acquired pneumonia. Crit Care Clin. 2013 Jul;29(3):563-601. Resumo

165. Melzer M, Welch C. 30-day mortality in UK patients with bacteraemic community-acquired pneumonia. Infection. 2013 Oct;41(5):1005-11. Resumo

166. Jasti H, Mortensen EM, Obrosky DS, et al. Causes and risk factors for rehospitalization of patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Feb 15;46(4):550-6.Texto completo  Resumo

167. Capelastegui A, España Yandiola PP, Quintana JM, et al. Predictors of short-term rehospitalization following discharge of patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Chest. 2009 Oct;136(4):1079-85. Resumo

168. Viasus D, Del Rio-Pertuz G, Simonetti AF, et al. Biomarkers for predicting short-term mortality in community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect. 2016 Mar;72(3):273-82. Resumo

169. Jiang J, Yang J, Jin Y, et al. Role of qSOFA in predicting mortality of pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Oct;97(40):e12634.Texto completo  Resumo

170. Cillóniz C, Dominedò C, Ielpo A, et al. Risk and prognostic factors in very old patients with sepsis secondary to community-acquired pneumonia. J Clin Med. 2019 Jul 2;8(7):E961.Texto completo  Resumo

171. Cilloniz C, Ferrer M, Liapikou A, et al. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in mechanically ventilated patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Eur Respir J. 2018 Mar 29;51(3):1702215.Texto completo  Resumo

172. Corrales-Medina VF, Suh KN, Rose G, et al. Cardiac complications in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. PLoS Med. 2011 Jun;8(6):e1001048.Texto completo  Resumo

173. Becker T, Moldoveanu A, Cukierman T, et al. Clinical outcomes associated with the use of subcutaneous insulin-by-glucose sliding scales to manage hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients with pneumonia. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007 Dec;78(3):392-7. Resumo

174. Ramirez J, Aliberti S, Mirsaeidi M, et al. Acute myocardial infarction in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Jul 15;47(2):182-7.Texto completo  Resumo

175. Corrales-Medina VF, Serpa J, Rueda AM, et al. Acute bacterial pneumonia is associated with the occurrence of acute coronary syndromes. Medicine (Baltimore). 2009 May;88(3):154-9. Resumo

176. Light RW, Girard WM, Jenkinson SG, et al. Parapneumonic effusions. Am J Med. 1980 Oct;69(4):507-12. Resumo

177. Taryle DA, Potts DE, Sahn SA. The incidence and clinical correlates of parapneumonic effusions in pneumococcal pneumonia. Chest. 1978 Aug;74(2):170-3. Resumo

178. Menéndez R, Torres A, Zalacaín R, et al. Risk factors of treatment failure in community acquired pneumonia: implications for disease outcome. Thorax. 2004 Nov;59(11):960-5.Texto completo  Resumo

179. Tsai YF, Ku YH. Necrotizing pneumonia: a rare complication of pneumonia requiring special consideration. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2012 May;18(3):246-52. Resumo

O uso deste conteúdo está sujeito ao nosso aviso legal