Referencias

Artículos principales

Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Miles JM, et al. Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes: a consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2009 Jul;32(7):1335-43.Texto completo  Resumen

Umpierrez G, Korytkowski M. Diabetic emergencies - ketoacidosis, hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state and hypoglycaemia. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2016 Apr;12(4):222-32. Resumen

American Diabetes Association. 15. Diabetes Care in the Hospital: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2021. Diabetes Care. 2021 Jan;44(suppl 1):S211-S220.Texto completo  Resumen

Artículos de referencia

1. Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Miles JM, et al. Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes: a consensus statement from the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2009 Jul;32(7):1335-43.Texto completo  Resumen

2. Balasubramanyam A, Nalini R, Hampe CS, et al. Syndromes of ketosis-prone diabetes mellitus. Endocr Rev. 2008 May;29(3):292-302.Texto completo  Resumen

3. Umpierrez GE, Woo W, Hagopian WA, et al. Immunogenetic analysis suggests different pathogenesis for obese and lean African-Americans with diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetes Care. 1999 Sep;22(9):1517-23. Resumen

4. Mauvais-Jarvis F, Sobngwi E, Porcher R, et al. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes in patients of sub-Saharan African origin: clinical pathophysiology and natural history of beta-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2004 Mar;53(3):645-53.Texto completo  Resumen

5. Umpierrez GE, Smiley D, Kitabchi AE. Narrative review: ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Mar 7;144(5):350-7. Resumen

6. Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Fisher JN, et al. Thirty years of personal experience in hyperglycemic crises: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 May;93(5):1541-52. Resumen

7. Zhong VW, Juhaeri J, Mayer-Davis EJ. Trends in hospital admission for diabetic ketoacidosis in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes in England, 1998-2013: a retrospective cohort study. Diabetes Care. 2018 Sep;41(9):1870-7. Resumen

8. Henriksen OM, Roder ME, Prahl JB, et al. Diabetic ketoacidosis in Denmark. Incidence and mortality estimated from public health registries. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007 Apr;76(1):51-6. Resumen

9. Hanas R, Lindgren F, Lindblad B, et al. Diabetic ketoacidosis and cerebral oedema in Sweden - a 2-year paediatric population study. Diabetic Med. 2007 Oct;24(10):1080-5. Resumen

10. Hekkala A, Knip M, Veijola R, et al. Ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children in northern Finland: temporal changes over 20 years. Diabetes Care. 2007 Apr;30(4):861-6.Texto completo  Resumen

11. Rodacki M, Pereira JR, Nabuco de Oliveira AM. Ethnicity and young age influence the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis at the onset of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007 Nov;78(2):259-62. Resumen

12. Benoit SR, Zhang Y, Geiss LS, et al. Trends in diabetic ketoacidosis hospitalizations and in-hospital mortality - United States, 2000-2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018 Mar 30;67(12):362-5.Texto completo  Resumen

13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes statistics report, 2017. February 2018 [internet publication].Texto completo

14. Umpierrez G, Korytkowski M. Diabetic emergencies - ketoacidosis, hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state and hypoglycaemia. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2016 Apr;12(4):222-32. Resumen

15. Vuk A, Baretic M, Osvatic MM, et al. Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis associated with antipsychotic medication: literature review. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2017 Oct;37(5):584-9. Resumen

16. Wachtel TJ, Silliman RA, Lamberton P. Prognostic factors in the diabetic hyperosmolar state. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1987 Aug;35(8):737-41. Resumen

17. Peters AL, Buschur EO, Buse JB, et al. Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis: a potential complication of treatment with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition. Diabetes Care. 2015 Sep;38(9):1687-93.Texto completo  Resumen

18. Kum-Nji JS, Gosmanov AR, Steinberg H, et al. Hyperglycemic, high anion-gap metabolic acidosis in patients receiving SGLT-2 inhibitors for diabetes management. J Diabetes Complications. 2017 Mar;31(3):611-4. Resumen

19. Danne T, Garg S, Peters AL, et al. International consensus on risk management of diabetic ketoacidosis in patients with type 1 diabetes treated with sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) inhibitors. Diabetes Care. 2019 Jun;42(6):1147-54.Texto completo  Resumen

20. Razavi Nematollahi L, Kitabchi AE, Stentz FB, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemic stress in healthy subjects. Metabolism. 2009 Apr;58(4):443-8. Resumen

21. Stentz FB, Umpierrez GE, Cuervo R, et al. Proinflammatory cytokines, markers of cardiovascular risks, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation in patients with hyperglycemic crises. Diabetes. 2004 Aug;53(8):2079-86.Texto completo  Resumen

22. Maldonado M, Hampe CS, Gaur LK, et al. Ketosis-prone diabetes: dissection of a heterogeneous syndrome using an immunogenetic and beta-cell functional classification, prospective analysis, and clinical outcomes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Nov;88(11):5090-8. Resumen

23. Kitabchi AE, Umpierrez GE, Murphy MB, et al. Management of hyperglycemic crises in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2001 Jan;24(1):131-53.Texto completo  Resumen

24. Price HC, Ismail K, Joint British Diabetes Societies (JBDS) for Inpatient Care. Royal College of Psychiatrists Liaison Faculty & Joint British Diabetes Societies (JBDS): guidelines for the management of diabetes in adults and children with psychiatric disorders in inpatient settings. Diabet Med. 2018 Aug;35(8):997-1004.Texto completo  Resumen

25. Lindner LME, Rathmann W, Rosenbauer J. Inequalities in glycaemic control, hypoglycaemia and diabetic ketoacidosis according to socio-economic status and area-level deprivation in Type 1 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Diabet Med. 2018 Jan;35(1):12-32. Resumen

26. Hamblin PS, Topliss DJ, Chosich N, et al. Deaths associated with diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma. 1973-1988. Med J Aust. 1989 Oct 16;151(8):439, 441-2, 444. Resumen

27. Nair S, Yadav D, Pitchumoni CS. Association of diabetic ketoacidosis and acute pancreatitis: observations in 100 consecutive episodes of DKA. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000 Oct;95(10):2795-800. Resumen

28. Kopff B, Mucha S, Wolffenbuttel BH, et al. Diabetic ketoacidosis in a patient with acromegaly. Med Sci Monit. 2001 Jan-Feb;7(1):142-7. Resumen

29. Cooppan R, Kozak GP. Hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus. An analysis of 70 patients. Arch Intern Med. 1980 Mar;140(3):370-3. Resumen

30. Alavi IA, Sharma BK, Pillay VK. Steroid-induced diabetic ketoacidosis. Am J Med Sci. 1971 Jul;262(1):15-23. Resumen

31. Wachtel TJ, Tetu-Mouradjian LM, Goldman DL, et al. Hyperosmolarity and acidosis in diabetes mellitus: a three-year experience in Rhode Island. J Gen Intern Med. 1991 Nov-Dec;6(6):495-502. Resumen

32. Newcomer JW. Second generation (atypical) antipsychotics and metabolic effects: a comprehensive literature review. CNS Drugs. 2005 Dec;19 Suppl 1:1-93. Resumen

33. Nyenwe EA, Loganathan RS, Blum S, et al. Active use of cocaine: an independent risk factor for recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis in a city hospital. Endocr Pract. 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):22-9. Resumen

34. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA revises labels of SGLT2 inhibitors for diabetes to include warnings about too much acid in the blood and serious urinary tract infections. December 2015 [internet publication].Texto completo

35. Miyoshi Y, Ogawa O, Oyama Y. Nivolumab, an anti-programmed cell death-1 antibody, induces fulminant type 1 diabetes. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2016 Jun;239(2):155-8.Texto completo  Resumen

36. Clotman K, Janssens K, Specenier P, et al. Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor induced type 1 diabetes mellitus: mini-review. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Sep 1;103(9):3144-54. Resumen

37. Kirwan JP, Aminian A, Kashyap SR, Bet al. Bariatric surgery in obese patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2016 Jun;39(6):941-8.Texto completo  Resumen

38. Runyan JW Jr, Zwaag RV, Joyner MB, et al. The Memphis diabetes continuing care program. Diabetes Care. 1980 Mar-Apr;3(2):382-6. Resumen

39. Vanelli M, Chiari G, Ghizzoni L, et al. Effectiveness of a prevention program for diabetes ketoacidosis in children. An 8-year study in schools and private practices. Diabetes Care. 11999 Jan;22(1):7-9. Resumen

40. Weber C, Kocher S, Neeser K, et al. Prevention of diabetic ketoacidosis and self-monitoring of ketone bodies: an overview. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009 May;25(5):1197-207. Resumen

41. Henry RR, Dandona P, Pettus J, et al. Dapagliflozin in patients with type 1 diabetes: A post hoc analysis of the effect of insulin dose adjustments on 24-hour continuously monitored mean glucose and fasting β-hydroxybutyrate levels in a phase IIa pilot study. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2017 Jun;19(6):814-21. Resumen

42. Goldenberg RM, Berard LD, Cheng AY, et al. SGLT2 inhibitor-associated diabetic ketoacidosis: clinical review and recommendations for prevention and diagnosis. Clin Ther. 2016 Dec;38(12):2654-64.e1. Resumen

43. Kitabchi AE. Editorial. Hyperglycemic crises: improving prevention and management. Am Fam Physician. 2005 May 1;71(9):1659-60.Texto completo  Resumen

44. Joseph F, Anderson L, Goenka N, et al. Starvation-induced true diabetic euglycemic ketoacidosis in severe depression. J Gen Intern Med. 2009 Jan;24(1):129-31.Texto completo  Resumen

45. Kemperman FA, Weber JA, Gorgels J, et al. The influence of ketoacids on plasma creatinine assays in diabetic ketoacidosis. J Intern Med. 2000 Dec;248(6):511-7.Texto completo  Resumen

46. Dhatariya K. Blood ketones: measurement, interpretation, limitations, and utility in the management of diabetic ketoacidosis. Rev Diabet Stud. 2016 Winter;13(4):217-25. Resumen

47. Nyenwe EA, Razavi LN, Kitabchi AE, et al. Acidosis: the prime determinant of depressed sensorium in diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetes Care. 2010 Aug;33(8):1837-9.Texto completo  Resumen

48. Matz R. Hypothermia in diabetic acidosis. Hormones. 1972;3(1):36-41. Resumen

49. Sheikh-Ali M, Karon BS, Basu A, et al. Can serum beta-hydroxybutyrate be used to diagnose diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetes Care. 2008 Apr;31(4):643-7. Resumen

50. Fasanmade OA, Odeniyi IA, Ogbera AO. Diabetic ketoacidosis: diagnosis and management. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2008 Jun;37(2):99-105. Resumen

51. Andrade OV, Ihara FO, Troster EJ. Metabolic acidosis in childhood: why, when and how to treat. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2007 May;83(2 Suppl):S11-21. Resumen

52. Piva JP, Czepielewskii M, Garcia PC, et al. Current perspectives for treating children with diabetic ketoacidosis. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2007 Nov;83(5 Suppl):S119-27. Resumen

53. Soar J, Böttiger BW, Carli P, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2021: adult advanced life support. Resuscitation. 2021 Apr;161:115-51.Texto completo  Resumen

54. Colquhoun MC, Handley AJ, Evans TR, eds. ABC of resuscitation. 5th ed. Wiley-Blackwell; 2004.

55. Rhodes A, Evans LE, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock: 2016. Intensive Care Med. 2017 Mar;43(3):304-77.Texto completo  Resumen

56. Gosmanov AR, Gosmanova EO, Dillard-Cannon E. Management of adult diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2014 Jun 30;7:255-64.Texto completo  Resumen

57. Hom J, Sinert R. Evidence-based emergency medicine/critically appraised topic. Is fluid therapy associated with cerebral edema in children with diabetic ketoacidosis? Ann Emerg Med. 2008 Jul;52(1):69-75.e1. Resumen

58. Levin DL. Cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2008 May;9(3):320-9. Resumen

59. Joint British Diabetes Societies Inpatient Care Group. The management of diabetic ketoacidosis in adults. Jun 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

60. Hillman K. Fluid resuscitation in diabetic emergencies - a reappraisal. Intensive Care Med. 1987;13(1):4-8. Resumen

61. American Diabetes Association. 15. Diabetes Care in the Hospital: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2021. Diabetes Care. 2021 Jan;44(suppl 1):S211-S220.Texto completo  Resumen

62. Fisher JN, Shahshahani MN, Kitabchi AE. Diabetic ketoacidosis: low-dose insulin therapy by various routes. N Engl J Med. 1977 Aug 4;297(5):238-41. Resumen

63. Umpierrez GE, Cuervo R, Karabell A, et al. Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis with subcutaneous insulin aspart. Diabetes Care. 2004 Aug;27(8):1873-8.Texto completo  Resumen

64. Umpierrez GE, Latif K, Stoever J, et al. Efficacy of subcutaneous insulin lispro versus continuous intravenous regular insulin for the treatment of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. Am J Med. 2004 Sep 1;117(5):291-6. Resumen

65. Ludvigsson J, Samuelsson U. Continuous insulin infusion (CSII) or modern type of multiple daily injections (MDI) in diabetic children and adolescents: a critical review on a controversial issue. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2007 Dec;5(2):666-78. Resumen

66. Mukhopadhyay A, Farrell T, Fraser RB, et al. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion vs intensive conventional insulin therapy in pregnant diabetic women: a systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized, controlled trials. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Nov;197(5):447-56. Resumen

67. Andrade-Castellanos CA, Colunga-Lozano LE, Delgado-Figueroa N, et al. Subcutaneous rapid-acting insulin analogues for diabetic ketoacidosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jan 21;(1):CD011281.Texto completo  Resumen

68. Chua HR, Schneider A, Bellomo R. Bicarbonate in diabetic ketoacidosis - a systematic review. Ann Intensive Care. 2011 Jul 6;1(1):23.Texto completo  Resumen

69. Morris LR, Murphy MB, Kitabchi AE. Bicarbonate therapy in severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Ann Intern Med. 1986 Dec;105(6):836-40. Resumen

70. Kusminsky RE. Complications of central venous catheterization. J Am Coll Surg. 2007 Apr;204(4):681-96. Resumen

71. McGee DC, Gould MK. Preventing complications of central venous catheterization. N Engl J Med. 2003 Mar 20;348(12):1123-33.Texto completo  Resumen

72. Smith RN, Nolan JP. Central venous catheters. BMJ. 2013 Nov 11;347:f6570. Resumen

73. Reich DL. Monitoring in anesthesia and perioperative care. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2011.

74. Abbott Northwestern Hospital Internal Medicine Residency. Internal jugular central venous line. 2015 [internet publication].Texto completo

75. Bishop L, Dougherty L, Bodenham A, et al. Guidelines on the insertion and management of central venous access devices in adults. Int J Lab Hematol. 2007 Aug;29(4):261-78. Resumen

76. Practice guidelines for central venous access 2020: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Central Venous Access. Anesthesiology. 2020 Jan;132(1):8-43.Texto completo  Resumen

77. Fletcher SJ, Bodenham AR. Safe placement of central venous catheters: where should the tip of the catheter lie? Br J Anaesth. 2000 Aug;85(2):188-91.Texto completo  Resumen

78. Gibson F, Bodenham A. Misplaced central venous catheters: applied anatomy and practical management. Br J Anaesth. 2013 Mar;110(3):333-46.Texto completo  Resumen

79. Schuster M, Nave H, Piepenbrock S, et al. The carina as a landmark in central venous catheter placement. Br J Anaesth. 2000 Aug;85(2):192-4.Texto completo  Resumen

80. Webster J, Osborne S, Rickard CM, et al. Clinically-indicated replacement versus routine replacement of peripheral venous catheters. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 23;(1):CD007798.Texto completo  Resumen

81. Fisher JN, Kitabchi AE. A randomized study of phosphate therapy in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983 Jul;57(1):177-80. Resumen

82. Adrogue HJ, Wilson H, Boyd AE 3rd, et al. Plasma acid-base patterns in diabetic ketoacidosis. N Engl J Med. 1982 Dec 23;307(26):1603-10. Resumen

83. Wolfsdorf JI, Glaser N, Agus M, et al. ISPAD Clinical practice consensus guidelines 2018: diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state. Pediatr Diabetes. 2018 Oct;19(suppl 27):155-77. Resumen

84. Duck SC, Wyatt DT. Factors associated with brain herniation in the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. J Pediatr. 1988 Jul;113(1 Pt 1):10-4. Resumen

85. Glaser N. New perspectives on the pathogenesis of cerebral edema complicating diabetic ketoacidosis in children. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2006 Jun;3(4):379-86. Resumen

86. Kuppermann N, Ghetti S, Schunk JE,et al; PECARN DKA FLUID Study Group. Clinical trial of fluid infusion rates for pediatric diabeticketoacidosis. N Engl J Med. 2018 Jun 14;378(24):2275-87. Resumen

87. Carroll P, Matz R. Adult respiratory distress syndrome complicating severely uncontrolled diabetes mellitus: report of nine cases and a review of the literature. Diabetes Care. 1982 Nov-Dec;5(6):574-80. Resumen

88. Buyukasik Y, Ileri NS, Haznedaroglu IC, et al. Enhanced subclinical coagulation activation during diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetes Care. 1998 May;21(5):868-70. Resumen

89. Kitabchi AE, Fisher JN. Insulin therapy of diabetic ketoacidosis: physiologic versus pharmacologic doses of insulin and their routes of administration. In: Brownlee M, ed. Handbook of diabetes mellitus. New York, NY: Garland ATPM Press; 1981:95-149.

90. Mazer M, Chen E. Is subcutaneous administration of rapid-acting insulin as effective as intravenous insulin for treating diabetic ketoacidosis? Ann Emerg Med. 2009 Feb;53(2):259-63. Resumen

91. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Management of diabetes: a national clinical guideline. November 2017 [internet publication].Texto completo

El uso de este contenido está sujeto a nuestra cláusula de exención de responsabilidad