最后审阅: 21 八月 2021
最后更新: 09 七月 2021

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 存在的危险因素
  • 先前 21 天暴露在埃博拉病毒环境下
  • 发热
  • 肌痛
  • 结膜充血

其他诊断因素

  • 疲劳
  • 厌食
  • 腹泻
  • 呕吐
  • 剧烈头痛
  • 腹痛或烧心
  • 咳嗽、呼吸困难、胸痛
  • 咽痛
  • 虚脱
  • 呼吸急促
  • 斑丘疹
  • 出血
  • 肝肿大
  • 淋巴结肿大
  • 呃逆
  • 心动过速
  • 低血压
  • 神经系统体征

危险因素

  • 先前 21 天在流行区生活或工作或者从流行区归来
  • 接触感染者的体液
  • 职业暴露
  • 屠宰感染(或潜在感染)动物或摄入此类动物的肉
  • 生物恐怖主义

诊断性检查

首要检查

  • 逆转录聚合酶链反应 (RT-PCR)
  • 疟疾检查

需考虑的检查

  • 血清电解质水平
  • 血清肌酐和尿素
  • 血乳酸
  • 动脉血气分析 (ABG)
  • 全血细胞计数(FBC)
  • 凝血功能检查
  • 尿液分析
  • 肝功能检查 (LFT)
  • 血清淀粉酶水平
  • 血糖
  • 血液培养
  • 抗原捕获酶联免疫吸附测定 (ELISA)
  • IgM 和 IgG 抗体
  • 胸部 X 线检查

治疗流程

急症处理

撰稿人

作者

Nicholas J. Beeching, MA, BM BCh, FRCP, FRACP, FFTM RCPS (Glasg), FESCMID, DCH, DTM&H

Consultant and Emeritus Professor of Tropical and Infectious Diseases

Royal Liverpool University Hospital

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine

Liverpool

UK

利益声明

NJB is partially supported by the National Institute of Health Research Health Protection Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections at the University of Liverpool and Public Health England. Views expressed in this topic are those of the contributor and do not necessarily represent the official position of the National Health Service, the National Institute for Health Research, the Department of Health, or Public Health England. NJB is an author of references cited in this topic.

Manuel Fenech, MD, MRCP, DTM&H

Specialist Trainee in Infectious Diseases

Royal Liverpool University Hospital

Liverpool

UK

利益声明

MF declares that he has no competing interests.

Tom E. Fletcher, MBE, MBChB, MRCP, DTM&H

Wellcome Trust/MoD Research Fellow

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine

Liverpool

UK

利益声明

TEF is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph. TEF is a consultant/expert panel member to the World Health Organization, and is funded by the UK Surgeon General and the Wellcome Trust. TEF has received research grants from the Medical Research Council and the UK Public Health Rapid Support Team (UK-PHRST).

Catherine F. Houlihan, MSc, MB ChB, MRCP, DTM&H

Clinical Lecturer

University College London

Honorary Clinical Lecturer

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

London

UK

利益声明

CFH declares that she has no competing interests.

鸣谢

Dr Nicholas J. Beeching, Dr Manuel Fenech, Dr Tom E. Fletcher, and Dr Catherine F. Houlihan would like to thank Dr Colin Brown (Infectious Disease Lead, Kings Sierra Leone Partnership) for his helpful comments and insights. CB declares that he has no competing interests.

同行评议者

William A. Petri, Jr, MD, PhD, FACP

Wade Hampton Frost Professor of Epidemiology

Professor of Medicine, Microbiology, and Pathology

Chief

Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health

University of Virginia

Charlottesville

VA

利益声明

WAP declares that he has no competing interests.

Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, MD, FACP, FIDSA, FSHEA

Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology

UT Health Medical School

Medical Director of Epidemiology

Memorial Hermann Texas Medical Center

Houston

TX

利益声明

LO-Z declares that he has no competing interests.

Stephen Mepham, MRCP (UK), FRCPATH, DTM&H, MD

Consultant in Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust

London

UK

利益声明

SM declares that he has no competing interests.

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