In China, 87% of confirmed cases were ages 30 to 79 years and 3% were ages 80 years or older. Approximately 51% of patients were male.
In Italy, the median age and prevalence of comorbidities was higher compared with China.
In the UK, the median age of patients was 73 years and males accounted for 60% of admissions in a prospective observational cohort study of more than 20,000 hospitalized patients.
In the US, older patients (ages ≥65 years) accounted for 31% of all cases, 45% of hospitalizations, 53% of intensive care unit admissions, and 80% of deaths, with the highest incidence of severe outcomes in patients ages ≥85 years.
Evidence suggests that children have a lower susceptibility to infection compared with adults, with an odds ratio of 0.56 for being an infected contact compared with adults. Adolescents appear to have similar susceptibility to adults.
China - 2.1% (median age 7 years)
Italy - 1.2% (median age 4 to 5 years; higher in males but not statistically significant)
Spain - 0.8% (median age 3 years)
US - 10.9% (or 986 cases per 100,000 children in the population) as of 15 October 2020.
In the UK, a prospective observational cohort study found that children and young adults represented 0.9% of all hospitalized patients at the time. The median age of children admitted to hospital was 4.6 years, 56% were male, 35% were under 12 months of age, and 42% had at least one comorbidity. In terms of ethnicity, 57% were White, 12% were South Asian, and 10% were Black. Age under 1 month, age 10 to 14 years, and Black race were risk factors for admission to critical care.
Most cases in children are from familial clusters, or children who have a history of close contact with an infected patient. Unlike adults, children do not seem to be at higher risk for severe illness based on age or sex.
A meta-analysis of over 2500 pregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 found that 73.9% of women were in the third trimester; 50.8% were from Black, Asian, or minority ethnic groups; 38.2% were obese; and 32.5% had chronic comorbidities.
In the UK, the estimated incidence of admission to hospital with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pregnancy is 4.9 per 1000 maternities. Most women were in the second or third trimester. Of these patients, 41% were ages 35 years or older, 56% were from Black or other ethnic minority groups, 69% were overweight or obese, and 34% had preexisting comorbidities.
In the US, according to an analysis of 8200 infected pregnant women, Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black pregnant women appear to be disproportionately affected during pregnancy.
The incidence of infection in healthcare workers ranged from 0.4% to 49.6% (by polymerase chain reaction), and the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity ranged from 1.6% to 31.6%. The wide ranges are likely related to differences in settings, exposures, rates of community transmission, symptom status, use of infection control measures, and other factors.
US - 18%
UK - 10%
Italy - 9%
Netherlands - 6%
China - 4.2%.
The majority of healthcare workers with COVID-19 reported contact in the healthcare setting. In a study of over 9000 cases reported in healthcare workers in the US, 55% had contact only in a healthcare setting, 27% only in a household, 13% only in the community, and 5% in more than one setting.
The most frequently affected healthcare workers were nurses. Only 5% of healthcare workers developed severe disease and 0.5% died. The incidence of severe or critical disease and mortality in healthcare workers was lower than the incidence of severe or critical disease and mortality in all patients.
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