Approach

Management predominantly depends on disease severity, and focuses on the following principles: isolation at a suitable location; infection prevention and control measures; symptom management; optimised supportive care; and organ support in severe or critical illness.

Location of care

The decision about location of care depends on various factors including clinical presentation, disease severity, need for supportive care, presence of risk factors for severe disease, and conditions at home (including the presence of vulnerable people). Make the decision on a case-by-case basis using the following general principles.[2]

  • Mild disease: manage in a healthcare facility, in a community facility, or at home. Home isolation can be considered in most patients, including asymptomatic patients. 

  • Moderate disease: manage in a healthcare facility, in a community facility, or at home. Home isolation can be considered in low-risk patients (i.e., patients who are not at high risk of deterioration). 

  • Severe disease: manage in an appropriate healthcare facility.

  • Critical disease: manage in an intensive/critical care unit. 

The location of care will also depend on guidance from local health authorities and available resources. Forced quarantine orders are being used in some countries.

The strongest risk factors for hospital admission are older age (odds ratio of >2 for all age groups older than 44 years, and odds ratio of 37.9 for people aged 75 years and over), heart failure, male sex, chronic kidney disease, and increased body mass index (BMI).[466] The median time from onset of symptoms to hospital admission is around 7 days.[30][385]

Children are less likely to require hospitalisation, but if admitted, generally only require supportive care.[10][17] Risk factors for intensive care admission in children include age <1 month, male sex, pre-existing medical conditions, and presence of lower respiratory tract infection signs or symptoms at presentation.[467]

Overall, 19% of hospitalised patients require non-invasive ventilation, 17% require intensive care, 9% require invasive ventilation, and 2% require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.[382] The most common reasons for intensive care unit admission are hypoxaemic respiratory failure leading to mechanical ventilation and hypotension.[468] Patients admitted to intensive care units were older, were predominantly male, and had a median length of stay of 23 days (range 12 to 32 days).[469]  The strongest risk factors for critical illness are oxygen saturation <88%; elevated serum troponin, C-reactive protein, and D-dimer; and, to a lesser extent, older age, BMI >40, heart failure, and male sex.[466]

Management of mild COVID-19

Patients with suspected or confirmed mild disease (i.e., symptomatic patients meeting the case definition for COVID-19 without evidence of hypoxia or pneumonia) and asymptomatic patients should be isolated to contain virus transmission.[2]

Location of care

  • Manage patients in a healthcare facility, in a community facility, or at home. Home isolation can be considered in most patients, with telemedicine or remote visits as appropriate.[2][3] This decision requires careful clinical judgement and should be informed by an assessment of the patient’s home environment.[461] 

  • Discontinue transmission-based precautions (including isolation) and release patients from the care pathway: 10 days after positive test (asymptomatic patients); 10 days after symptom onset plus at least 3 days without fever and respiratory symptoms (symptomatic patients).[2] The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends at least two negative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests on respiratory specimens collected 24 hours apart before ending isolation if a test-based strategy is used.[470] Guidance on when to stop isolation depends on local circumstances and may differ between countries.

Infection prevention and control

Symptom management

  • Fever and pain: paracetamol or ibuprofen are recommended.[2][471] There is no evidence at present of severe adverse events in COVID-19 patients taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen, or of effects as a result of the use of NSAIDs on acute healthcare utilisation, long-term survival, or quality of life in patients with COVID-19.[2][472][473][474][475][476][477][478] Ibuprofen should only be taken at the lowest effective dose for the shortest period needed to control symptoms.

  • Cough: advise patients to avoid lying on their back as this makes coughing ineffective. Use simple measures (e.g., a teaspoon of honey in patients aged 1 year and older) to help cough.[472] 

  • Olfactory dysfunction: consider treatment (e.g., olfactory training) if olfactory dysfunction persists beyond 2 weeks. Often it improves spontaneously and does not require specific treatment. There is no evidence to support the use of treatments in patients with COVID-19.[479]

Supportive care

  • Advise patients about adequate nutrition and appropriate rehydration. Too much fluid can worsen oxygenation.[2] 

  • Advise patients to improve air circulation by opening a window or door (fans can spread infection and should not be used).[2][472] 

  • Provide basic mental health and psychosocial support for all patients, and manage any symptoms of insomnia, depression, or anxiety as appropriate.[2] 

Monitor

  • Closely monitor patients with risk factors for severe illness, and counsel patients about signs and symptoms of deterioration or complications that require prompt urgent care (e.g., difficulty breathing, chest pain).[2][3]

Management of moderate COVID-19

Patients with suspected or confirmed moderate disease (i.e., clinical signs of pneumonia but no signs of severe pneumonia) should be isolated to contain virus transmission.[2] 

Location of care

  • Manage patients in a healthcare facility, in a community facility, or at home. Home isolation, with telemedicine or remote visits as appropriate, can be considered in low-risk patients. Manage patients at high risk of deterioration in a healthcare facility.[2][3] 

  • Discontinue transmission-based precautions (including isolation) and release patients from the care pathway 10 days after symptom onset plus at least 3 days without fever and respiratory symptoms.[2] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends at least two negative RT-PCR tests on respiratory specimens collected 24 hours apart before ending isolation if a test-based strategy is used.[470][480] Guidance on when to stop isolation depends on local circumstances and may differ between countries.

Infection prevention and control

  • Implement local infection prevention and control procedures when managing patients with COVID-19. For patients in home isolation, advise patients and household members to follow appropriate infection prevention and control measures (see above).

Symptom management and supportive care

  • Manage symptoms and provide supportive care as appropriate (see above).

Antibiotics

  • Consider empirical antibiotics if there is clinical suspicion of bacterial infection.[2][3] Antibiotics may also be considered in older people (particularly those in long-term care facilities) and children <5 years of age to provide empirical antibiotic treatment for possible pneumonia.[2]

Monitor

  • Closely monitor patients for signs or symptoms of disease progression.

  • If the patient is being managed at home, counsel them about signs and symptoms of deterioration or complications that require prompt urgent care (e.g., difficulty breathing, chest pain). There is no evidence to support the use of pulse oximeters in the home setting.[2] 

  • If the patient is being managed in hospital, monitor patients closely for signs of clinical deterioration using medical early warning scores (e.g., National Early Warning Score 2 [NEWS2]), and respond immediately with appropriate supportive care interventions.[2] 

Management of severe COVID-19 

Patients with suspected or confirmed severe disease are at risk of rapid clinical deterioration.[2]

  • Severe disease in adults is defined as having clinical signs of pneumonia plus at least one of the following:

    • Respiratory rate >30 breaths/minute

    • Severe respiratory distress

    • SpO₂ <90% on room air

  • Severe disease in children is defined as having clinical signs of pneumonia plus at least one of the following:

    • Central cyanosis or SpO₂ <90%

    • Severe respiratory distress

    • General danger sign

    • Inability to breastfeed or drink, lethargy or unconsciousness, or convulsions. 

Location of care

  • Manage patients in an appropriate healthcare facility under the guidance of a specialist team.[2] 

  • Assess all adults for frailty on admission to hospital, irrespective of age and COVID-19 status, using the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). Clinical frailty scale external link opens in a new window A large observational study found that disease outcomes were better predicted by frailty than either age or comorbidity; frailty (CFS score 5-8) was associated with earlier death and longer duration of hospital stay, and these outcomes worsened with increasing frailty after adjustment for age and comorbidity.[481]

  • Involve critical care teams in discussions about admission to critical care for patients where: 

    • The CFS score suggests the person is less frail (e.g., CFS <5), they are likely to benefit from critical care organ support, and the patient wants critical care treatment; or

    • The CFS score suggests the person is more frail (e.g., CFS ≥5), there is uncertainty regarding the benefit of critical care organ support, and critical care advice is needed to help the decision about treatment.

  • Take into account the impact of underlying pathologies, comorbidities, and severity of acute illness.[482] 

  • Discontinue transmission-based precautions (including isolation) and release patients from the care pathway 10 days after symptom onset plus at least 3 days without fever and respiratory symptoms.[2] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends at least two negative RT-PCR tests on respiratory specimens collected 24 hours apart before ending isolation if a test-based strategy is used.[480] Guidance on when to stop isolation depends on local circumstances and may differ between countries.

Infection prevention and control

  • Implement local infection prevention and control procedures when managing patients with COVID-19.

Oxygen

  • Start supplemental oxygen therapy immediately in any patient with emergency signs (i.e., obstructed or absent breathing, severe respiratory distress, central cyanosis, shock, coma and/or convulsions), or any patient without emergency signs and SpO₂ <90%.[2][3] There is no evidence of benefit for oxygen therapy in patients with COVID-19 in the absence of hypoxaemia.[483] 

  • Target SpO₂ to ≥94% during resuscitation in adults and children with emergency signs who require emergency airway management and oxygen therapy. Once the patient is stable, a target SpO₂ >90% in children and non-pregnant adults, and ≥92% to 95% in pregnant women, is recommended. Nasal prongs or a nasal cannula are preferred in young children.[2] Some guidelines recommend that SpO₂ should be maintained no higher than 96%.[471] 

  • Some centres may recommend different SpO₂ targets in order to support prioritisation of oxygen flow for the most severely ill patients in hospital. NHS England recommends a target of 92% to 95% (or 90% to 94% if clinically appropriate), for example.[484] 

  • Consider positioning techniques (e.g., high supported sitting, prone position) and airway clearance management to assist with secretion clearance in adults.[2] Oxygen delivery can be increased by using a non-rebreathing mask and prone positioning.[485] Consider a trial of awake prone positioning to improve oxygenation in patients with persistent hypoxaemia despite increasing supplemental oxygen requirements in whom endotracheal intubation is not otherwise indicated.[3] Early self-proning of awake, non-intubated patients has been shown to improve oxygen saturation and may delay or reduce the need for intensive care.[486][487][488][489][490]

  • Monitor patients closely for signs of progressive acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure. Patients who continue to deteriorate despite standard oxygen therapy require advanced oxygen/ventilatory support.[2][3]

Symptom management and supportive care

  • Fluids and electrolytes: use cautious fluid management in adults and children without tissue hypoperfusion and fluid responsiveness as aggressive fluid resuscitation may worsen oxygenation.[2] Correct any electrolyte or metabolic abnormalities, such as hyperglycaemia or metabolic acidosis, according to local protocols.[491] 

  • Fever and pain: paracetamol or ibuprofen are recommended.[2][471] There is no evidence at present of severe adverse events in COVID-19 patients taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen, or of effects as a result of the use of NSAIDs on acute healthcare utilisation, long-term survival, or quality of life in patients with COVID-19.[2][472][473][474][475][476][477][478] Ibuprofen should only be taken at the lowest effective dose for the shortest period needed to control symptoms. 

  • Cough: advise patients to avoid lying on their back as this makes coughing ineffective. Use simple measures (e.g., a teaspoon of honey in patients aged 1 year and older) to help cough. Short-term use of a cough suppressant may be considered in select patients (e.g., if the cough is distressing to the patient) provided there are no contraindications.[472] 

  • Breathlessness: keep the room cool, and encourage relaxation, breathing techniques, and changing body positions. Identify and treat any reversible causes of breathlessness (e.g., pulmonary oedema). Consider a trial of oxygen, if available. Consider an opioid and benzodiazepine combination in patients with moderate to severe breathlessness or patients who are distressed.[472] 

  • Anxiety, delirium, and agitation: identify and treat any underlying or reversible causes (e.g., offer reassurance, treat hypoxia, correct metabolic or endocrine abnormalities, address co-infections, minimise use of drugs that may cause or worsen delirium, treat substance withdrawal, maintain normal sleep cycles, treat pain or breathlessness).[2][472] Consider a benzodiazepine for the management of anxiety or agitation that does not respond to other measures. Consider haloperidol or a phenothiazine for the management of delirium.[472] Low doses of haloperidol (or another suitable antipsychotic) can also be considered for agitation.[2] Non-pharmacological interventions are the mainstay for the management of delirium when possible, and prevention is key.[492]

  • Provide basic mental health and psychosocial support for all patients, and manage any symptoms of insomnia, depression, or anxiety as appropriate.[2]

Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis

  • Start venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in acutely ill hospitalised adults and adolescents with COVID-19 as per the standard of care for other hospitalised patients without COVID-19, provided there are no contraindications. A COVID-19 diagnosis should not influence a paediatrician’s recommendations about VTE prophylaxis in hospitalised children. Pregnant women should be managed by a specialist.[2][3][493][494] 

  • Low molecular weight heparin or fondaparinux are preferred over unfractionated heparin in order to reduce patient contact. Unfractionated heparin is contraindicated in patients with severe thrombocytopenia. Fondaparinux is recommended in patients with a history of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Direct oral anticoagulants are not recommended. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis (e.g., intermittent pneumatic compression devices) is recommended if anticoagulation is contraindicated or not available.[2][494][495] 

  • The optimal dose is unknown. Standard prophylaxis doses are recommended over intermediate- or full treatment-dose regimens.[494] Some clinicians are using intermediate- or full treatment-dose regimens rather than prophylactic doses as they are worried about undetected thrombi; however, this may lead to major bleeding events.[496] There are insufficient data to recommend increased anticoagulant doses for VTE prophylaxis in COVID-19 patients outside the setting of a clinical trial.[3] However, some guidelines recommend that escalated doses can be considered in critically ill patients.[493] 

  • Monitor patients for signs and symptoms suggestive of thromboembolism and proceed with appropriate diagnostic and management pathways if clinically suspected.[2]

  • Routine post-discharge VTE prophylaxis is not generally recommended, except in certain high-risk patients.[3][493][494]

  • There is little high-quality evidence for VTE prophylaxis in COVID-19 patients; therefore, clinicians should rely on pre-COVID-19 evidence-based principles of anticoagulation management combined with rational approaches to address clinical challenges.[493]

Antimicrobials

  • Consider empirical antibiotics if there is clinical suspicion of bacterial infection. Give within 1 hour of initial assessment for patients with suspected sepsis or if the patient meets high-risk criteria (or within 4 hours of establishing a diagnosis of pneumonia); do not wait for microbiology results. Base the regimen on the clinical diagnosis (e.g., community-acquired pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, sepsis), local epidemiology and susceptibility data, and local treatment guidelines.[2][3][439]

  • Some guidelines recommend empirical antibiotics for bacterial pathogens in all patients with community-acquired pneumonia without confirmed COVID-19. It is likely that the bacterial pathogens in patients with COVID-19 and pneumonia are the same as in previous patients with community-acquired pneumonia, and therefore empirical antimicrobial recommendations should be the same.[440] However, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the UK recommends that it is reasonable not to start empirical antimicrobials if you are confident that the clinical features are typical for COVID-19.[439] There is insufficient evidence to recommend empirical broad-spectrum antimicrobials in the absence of another indication.[3] 

  • Some patients may require continued antibiotic therapy once COVID-19 has been confirmed depending on the clinical circumstances (e.g., clinical or microbiological evidence of bacterial infection regardless of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2] test results, SARS-CoV-2 test result is positive but clinical features are not typical for COVID-19). In these circumstances, review antibiotic choice based on microbiology results and switch to a narrower-spectrum antibiotic if appropriate, review intravenous antibiotic use within 48 hours and consider switching to oral therapy, and give for a total of 5 days unless there is a clear indication to continue.[439]

  • Reassess antibiotic use daily. De-escalate empirical therapy on the basis of microbiology results and clinical judgement. Regularly review the possibility of switching from intravenous to oral therapy. Duration of treatment should be as short as possible (e.g., 5 to 7 days). Antibiotic stewardship programmes should be in place.[2] 

  • Treat laboratory-confirmed co-infections (e.g., malaria, tuberculosis, influenza) as appropriate according to local protocols.[2]

Corticosteroids

  • Consider low-dose dexamethasone for the management of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 who require oxygen or ventilation. 

  • Dexamethasone is associated with reduced mortality risk in patients with severe COVID-19 according to results (preliminary results from a preprint study, not peer reviewed) from the RECOVERY trial in the UK. A total of 2104 patients were randomised to receive low-dose dexamethasone and were compared with 4321 patients randomised to usual care alone. Dexamethasone was found to reduce deaths by one third in patients who were ventilated, and by one fifth in patients who were receiving oxygen only. There were no excess harms identified in using this dose in this patient population. There was no benefit among patients who did not require respiratory support.[497]

  • As a consequence of this trial, in the UK low-dose dexamethasone is now indicated for the treatment of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 in hospitalised adults receiving oxygen therapy, non-invasive or invasive ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Oral prednisolone or intravenous hydrocortisone is recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women. Use in children is still being studied.[498]

  • In the US, the National Institutes of Health guideline panel recommends using dexamethasone in adults with COVID-19 who are mechanically ventilated, and in patients who require supplemental oxygen but who are not mechanically ventilated. The panel recommends against using dexamethasone in patients who do not require supplemental oxygen. It is unknown whether other corticosteroids have the same benefit. Assess whether the patient is suitable for corticosteroid therapy before starting therapy. The safety of coadministering dexamethasone and remdesivir is not known.[3] The Infectious Diseases Society of America supports the use of dexamethasone in hospitalised patients with severe disease.[499]

  • While the RECOVERY trial found significant benefit with the use of corticosteroids, results from retrospective studies are inconsistent and not strongly supportive of corticosteroid use in COVID-19 despite the signals for some benefits. More studies are necessary to substantiate conclusive benefit.[500]

Experimental therapies

  • Administer experimental therapies such as remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and plasma therapy only in the context of a clinical trial.[2] See Emerging section for more information. 

Monitor

  • Monitor patients closely for signs of clinical deterioration, and respond immediately with appropriate supportive care interventions.[2] 

Discharge and rehabilitation

  • Routinely assess older patients for mobility, functional swallow, cognitive impairment, and mental health concerns, and based on that assessment determine whether the patient is ready for discharge and whether the patient has any rehabilitation and follow-up requirements.[2]

Management of critical COVID-19

Patients with critical disease (i.e., presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, or septic shock) should be admitted or transferred to an intensive/critical care unit.[2] 

Location of care

  • Manage patients in an intensive/critical care unit under the guidance of a specialist team.[2]

  • Discuss the risks, benefits, and potential outcomes of treatment options with patients and their families, and allow them to express preferences about their management. Take their wishes and expectations into account when considering the ceiling of treatment. Use decision support tools if available. Put treatment escalation plans in place, and discuss any existing advance care plans or advance decisions to refuse treatment with patients who have pre-existing advanced comorbidities.[472] 

  • Discontinue transmission-based precautions (including isolation) and release patients from the care pathway 10 days after symptom onset plus at least 3 days without fever and respiratory symptoms.[2] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends at least two negative RT-PCR tests on respiratory specimens collected 24 hours apart before ending isolation if a test-based strategy is used.[480] Guidance on when to stop isolation depends on local circumstances and may differ between countries.

Infection prevention and control

  • Implement local infection prevention and control procedures when managing patients with COVID-19.

High-flow nasal oxygen or non-invasive ventilation

  • Consider a trial of high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) or non-invasive ventilation (e.g., continuous positive airway pressure [CPAP] or bilevel positive airway pressure [BiPAP]) in selected patients with mild acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).[2] 

  • Airborne precautions are recommended for these interventions (including bubble CPAP) due to uncertainty about the potential for aerosolisation.[2] Novel methods to protect clinicians without access to standard personal protective equipment during aerosol-generating procedures have been suggested.[501][502][503][504]

  • Patients with hypercapnia, haemodynamic instability, multi-organ failure, or abnormal mental status should generally not receive HFNO, although emerging data suggests that it may be safe in patients with mild to moderate and non-worsening hypercapnia. Patients with hypoxaemic respiratory failure and haemodynamic instability, multi-organ failure, or abnormal mental status should not receive these treatments in place of other options such as invasive ventilation.[2]

  • There is ongoing debate about the optimal mode of respiratory support before mechanical ventilation.[505] NHS England recommends CPAP as the preferred form of non-invasive ventilation. It doesn't advocate the use of HFNO based on a lack of efficacy, oxygen use (HFNO can place a strain on oxygen supplies with the risk of site supply failure), and infection spread.[506] Other guidelines recommend HFNO over non-invasive ventilation, unless HFNO is not available.[3][471] Despite the trend to avoid HFNO, it has been shown to have a similar risk of aerosol generation to standard oxygen masks.[507] 

  • Early CPAP may provide a bridge to invasive mechanical ventilation. Reserve the use of BiPAP for patients with hypercapnic acute or chronic ventilatory failure.[506] 

  • Indirect and low-certainty evidence suggests that non-invasive ventilation probably reduces mortality in patients with COVID-19, similar to mechanical ventilation, but may increase the risk of viral transmission.[508] 

  • Monitor patients closely for acute deterioration. If patients do not improve after a short trial of these interventions, they require urgent endotracheal intubation.[2][471] 

  • More detailed guidance on the management of ARDS in COVID-19 is beyond the scope of this topic; consult a specialist for further guidance.

Mechanical ventilation

  • Consider endotracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation in patients who are acutely deteriorating despite advanced oxygen/non-invasive ventilatory support measures.[2][3] 

  • Two-thirds of patients who required critical care in the UK had mechanical ventilation within 24 hours of admission.[509] In New York, 33% of hospitalised patients developed respiratory failure leading to mechanical ventilation. These patients were more likely to be male, have obesity, and have elevated inflammatory markers and liver function tests.[155] Patients spent an average of 18 days on a ventilator (range 9-28 days).[510] 

  • Endotracheal intubation should be performed by an experienced provider using airborne precautions.[2] Intubation by video laryngoscopy is recommended if possible.[3] Young children, or adults who are obese or pregnant, may desaturate quickly during intubation and therefore require pre-oxygenation with 100% FiO₂ for 5 minutes.[2] 

  • Mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS should receive a lung-protective, low tidal volume/low inspiratory pressure ventilation strategy (lower targets are recommended in children). A higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) strategy is preferred over a lower PEEP strategy in moderate to severe ARDS. However, individualisation of PEEP, where the patient is monitored for beneficial or harmful effects and driving pressure during titration with consideration of the risks and benefits of PEEP titration, is recommended.[2][3][471] NHS England recommends a low PEEP strategy in patients with normal compliance where recruitment may not be required.[511]

  • Although some patients with COVID-19 pneumonia meet the criteria for ARDS, there is some discussion about whether COVID-19 pneumonia is its own specific disease with atypical phenotypes. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the main characteristic of the atypical presentation is the dissociation between well-preserved lung mechanics and the severity of hypoxaemia.[512][513][514][515][516][517] However, this approach has been criticised.[518][519] It has been argued that an evidence-based approach extrapolating data from ARDS not related to COVID-19 is the most reasonable approach for intensive care of COVID-19 patients.[520] As a consequence of this, some clinicians have warned that protocol-driven ventilator use may be causing lung injury in some patients, and that ventilator settings should be based on physiological findings rather than using standard protocols. High PEEP may have a detrimental effect on patients with normal compliance.[512] PEEP should always be carefully titrated.[485] 

  • Consider prone ventilation in patients with severe ARDS for 12 to 16 hours per day. Pregnant women in the third trimester may benefit from being placed in the lateral decubitus position. Caution is required in children.[2][3][471] Longer durations may be feasible in some patients.[521] A small cohort study of 12 patients in Wuhan City, China, with COVID-19-related ARDS suggests that spending periods of time in the prone position may improve lung recruitability.[522] Two small case series found that many people tolerate the prone position while awake, breathing spontaneously, or receiving non-invasive ventilation. In the patients who tolerated it, improvement in oxygenation and a decrease in respiratory rate occurred.[523][524] 

  • Lung recruitment manoeuvres are suggested, but staircase recruitment manoeuvres are not recommended.[3][471] 

  • More detailed guidance on the management of ARDS in COVID-19, including sedation and the use of neuromuscular blockade during ventilation, is beyond the scope of this topic; consult a specialist for further guidance.

Inhaled pulmonary vasodilator

  • Consider a trial of an inhaled pulmonary vasodilator in adults who have severe ARDS and hypoxaemia despite optimising ventilation. Taper off if there is no rapid improvement in oxygenation.[3][471]

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

  • Consider extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) according to availability and expertise if the above methods fail.[2][471][525][526] ECMO is not suitable for all patients, and only those who meet certain inclusion criteria may be considered for ECMO.[527] 

  • There is insufficient evidence to recommend either for or against the routine use of ECMO.[3] Preliminary data on the use of ECMO in patients with COVID-19 is not promising, although it may play a useful role in salvaging select patients.[528][529]

Management of septic shock/sepsis

  • The management of sepsis and septic shock in patients with COVID-19 is beyond the scope of this topic. See Complications section.

Symptom management and supportive care

  • Consider fluid and electrolyte management, antimicrobial treatment, and experimental therapies as appropriate (see above). 

  • Manage symptoms such as fever, pain, cough, breathlessness, anxiety, agitation, delirium, depression, or insomnia as appropriate (see above).

  • VTE prophylaxis is recommended in critically ill patients. Low molecular weight heparin is the preferred option, with unfractionated heparin considered a suitable alternative and preferred over fondaparinux.[494]

Corticosteroids

  • Consider low-dose dexamethasone for the management of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 who require oxygen or ventilation (see above).

  • Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines suggest that adults with ARDS who are receiving mechanical ventilation and adults with refractory shock should receive corticosteroids, although this recommendation is based on weak evidence.[471]

Discharge and rehabilitation

  • Routinely assess intensive care patients for mobility, functional swallow, cognitive impairment, and mental health concerns, and based on that assessment determine whether the patient is ready for discharge, and whether the patient has any rehabilitation and follow-up requirements.[2] 

Palliative care

  • Palliative care interventions should be made accessible at each institution that provides care for patients with COVID-19. Identify whether the patient has an advance care plan and respect the patient’s priorities and preferences when formulating the patient’s care plan.[2] Follow local palliative care guidelines.

There has been some suggestion that lung injury due to COVID-19 may be similar to high-altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO); however, there is no evidence to support this, and treatments used for HAPO (e.g., acetazolamide) should not be used for the treatment of COVID-19.[409]

Management of pregnant women

Pregnant women should be managed by a multidisciplinary team, including obstetric, perinatal, neonatal, and intensive care specialists, as well as midwifery and mental health and psychosocial support. A woman-centred, respectful, skilled approach to care is recommended.[2] In women with severe or critical disease, the multidisciplinary team should be organised as soon as possible after maternal hypoxaemia occurs in order to assess fetal maturity, disease progression, and the best options for delivery.[530] One in five pregnant women hospitalised with COVID-19 infection were admitted to the intensive care unit or required urgent delivery due to respiratory deterioration.[209]

There are limited data available on the management of pregnant women with COVID-19; however, pregnant women can generally be treated with the same supportive therapies detailed above, taking into account the physiological changes that occur with pregnancy.[2]

The prevalence of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2-positive pregnant women admitted for delivery appears to be low (<3% in a cohort in Connecticut, and 0.43% in a cohort in California).[531][532] Screening women and their delivery partners before admission may not be helpful. More than 15% of asymptomatic maternity patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection despite having been screened negative using a telephone screening tool in one small observational study in New York. In addition to this, 58% of their asymptomatic support persons tested positive despite being screened negative.[533] Another study in a New York obstetric population found that 88% of women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 at admission were asymptomatic at presentation.[534] 

Location of care

  • Manage pregnant women in a healthcare facility, in a community facility, or at home. Women with suspected or confirmed mild disease may not require acute care in a hospital unless there is concern for rapid deterioration or an inability to return to hospital promptly.[2] Follow local infection prevention and control procedures as for non-pregnant people.

  • Consider home care in women with asymptomatic or mild illness, provided the patient has no signs of potentially severe illness (e.g., breathlessness, haemoptysis, new chest pain/pressure, anorexia, dehydration, confusion), no comorbidities, and no obstetric issues; the patient is able to care for herself; and monitoring and follow-up is possible. Otherwise, manage pregnant women in a hospital setting with appropriate maternal and fetal monitoring whenever possible.[361][535][536] 

  • Postpone routine antenatal or postnatal health visits for women who are in home isolation and reschedule them after the isolation period is completed. Delivery of counselling and care should be conducted via telemedicine whenever possible. Counsel women about healthy diet, mobility and exercise, intake of micronutrients, smoking, and alcohol and substance use. Advise women to seek urgent care if they develop any worsening of illness or danger signs, or danger signs of pregnancy.[2] 

  • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has published an algorithm to help decide whether hospital admission or home care is more appropriate. ACOG: outpatient assessment and management for pregnant women with suspected or confirmed novel coronavirus (COVID-19) external link opens in a new window

Antenatal corticosteroids

  • Consider antenatal corticosteroids for fetal lung maturation in women who are at risk of preterm birth (24 to 37 weeks’ gestation). Caution is advised because corticosteroids could potentially worsen the maternal clinical condition, and the decision should be made in conjunction with the multidisciplinary team.[361][536][537] The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends antenatal corticosteroids only when there is no clinical evidence of maternal infection and adequate childbirth and newborn care is available, and in women with mild COVID-19 after assessing the risks and benefits.[2] Corticosteroids for fetal lung maturation have not been shown to cause more harm in patients with COVID-19.[538]

Labour and delivery

  • Implement local infection prevention and control measures during labour and delivery. A negative pressure isolation room is recommended if available. Screen birth partners for COVID-19 infection using the standard case definition.[2] 

  • Individualise mode of birth based on obstetric indications and the woman’s preferences. Vaginal delivery is preferred in women with confirmed infection to avoid unnecessary surgical complications. Induction of labour, interventions to accelerate labour and delivery, and caesarean delivery are generally only recommended when medically justified based on maternal and fetal condition. COVID-19 positive status alone is not an indication for caesarean section.[2][361][536] Avoid using birthing pools in patients with suspected or confirmed infection.[538]

  • Delayed umbilical cord clamping (not earlier than 1 minute after birth) is recommended for improved maternal and infant health and nutrition outcomes. The risk of transmission via blood is thought to be minimal, and there is no evidence that delayed cord clamping increases the risk of viral transmission from the mother to the newborn.[2]

  • Consider babies born to mothers with suspected or confirmed infection to be a person under investigation and isolate them from healthy newborns. Test them for infection 24 hours after birth, and, if negative, again 48 hours after birth.[539] 

Newborn care

  • Experts are divided on separating mother and baby after delivery; make decisions on a case-by-base basis using shared-decision making.

  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that mothers and infants should remain together unless the mother is too sick to care for her baby. Breastfeeding should be encouraged while applying appropriate infection prevention and control measures (e.g., performing hand hygiene before and after contact with the baby, wearing a mask while breastfeeding).[2] The WHO advises that the benefits of breastfeeding outweigh the potential risks for transmission.[540]

  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that temporary separation of a newborn from a mother with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 should be strongly considered. However, the risks and benefits should be discussed with the mother and decisions made in accordance with the mother’s wishes. If separation is not undertaken, measures to minimise the risk of transmission should be implemented.[541] A mother with confirmed infection should be counselled to take all possible precautions to avoid transmission to the infant during breastfeeding (e.g., hand hygiene, wearing a cloth face covering). Expressed milk should be fed to the newborn by a healthy carer.[542] 

  • The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) recommends that mothers with confirmed infection and healthy babies are kept together in the immediate postnatal period. It is recommended that the risks and benefits are discussed with neonatologists and families in order to individualise care in babies who may be more susceptible to infection. The RCOG advises that the benefits of breastfeeding outweigh any potential risks of transmission of the virus through breast milk, and recommends appropriate preventive precautions to limit transmission to the baby.[538]

  • The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that temporary separation is the safest option, but acknowledges there are situations where this is not possible or the mother chooses to room-in. The AAP supports breastfeeding as the best choice for feeding. Breast milk can be expressed after appropriate hygiene measures and fed by an uninfected carer. If the mother chooses to breastfeed the infant themselves, appropriate prevention measures are recommended. After discharge, advise mothers with COVID-19 to practice prevention measures (e.g., distance, hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene/mask) for newborn care until either: they are afebrile for 72 hours without use of antipyretics and at least 10 days have passed since symptoms first appeared; or they have at least two consecutive negative SARS-CoV-2 tests from specimens collected ≥24 hours apart. This may require the support of an uninfected carer. A newborn with documented infection requires close outpatient follow-up after discharge for 14 days after birth.[539] 

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