References

Key articles

Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 2022 report [internet publication].Full text

Nici L, Mammen MJ, Charbek E, et al. Pharmacologic management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. an official American Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020 May 1;201(9):e56-e69.Full text  Abstract

Jacobs SS, Krishnan JA, Lederer DJ, et al. Home oxygen therapy for adults with chronic lung disease. An official American Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020 Nov 15;202(10):e121-41.Full text  Abstract

Leard LE, Holm AM, Valapour M, et al. Consensus document for the selection of lung transplant candidates: an update from the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2021 Nov;40(11):1349-79.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 2022 report [internet publication].Full text

2. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in over 16s: diagnosis and management. July 2019 [internet publication].Full text

3. Badgett RG, Tanaka DJ, Hunt DK, et al. Can moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease be diagnosed by historical and physical findings alone? Am J Med. 1993 Feb;94(2):188-96. Abstract

4. Garcia-Pachon E. Paradoxical movement of the lateral rib margin (Hoover sign) for detecting obstructive airway disease. Chest. 2002 Aug;122(2):651-5. Abstract

5. Morgan AD, Rothnie KJ, Bhaskaran K, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the risk of 12 cardiovascular diseases: a population-based study using UK primary care data. Thorax. 2018 Sep;73(9):877-9. Abstract

6. Maltais F, Decramer M, Casaburi R, et al. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: update on limb muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 May 1;189(9):e15-62.Full text  Abstract

7. Nissen F, Morales DR, Mullerova H, et al. Concomitant diagnosis of asthma and COPD: a quantitative study in UK primary care. Br J Gen Pract. 2018 Nov;68(676):e775-82.Full text  Abstract

8. Hosseini M, Almasi-Hashiani A, Sepidarkish M, et al. Global prevalence of asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Respir Res. 2019 Oct 23;20(1):229.Full text  Abstract

9. Tilert T, Dillon C, Paulose-Ram R, et al. Estimating the U.S. prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010. Respir Res. 2013 Oct 9;14:103.Full text  Abstract

10. QuickStats: percentage of adults aged ≥18 years with diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, by urbanization level and age group - National Health Interview Survey, United States, 2019. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jul 2;70(26):959.Full text  Abstract

11. Varmaghani M, Dehghani M, Heidari E, et al. Global prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. East Mediterr Health J. 2019 Mar 19;25(1):47-57.Full text  Abstract

12. Li X, Cao X, Guo M, et al. Trends and risk factors of mortality and disability adjusted life years for chronic respiratory diseases from 1990 to 2017: systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. BMJ. 2020 Feb 19;368:m234.Full text  Abstract

13. Landis SH, Muellerova H, Mannino DM, et al. Continuing to Confront COPD International Patient Survey: methods, COPD prevalence, and disease burden in 2012-2013. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2014;9:597-611.Full text  Abstract

14. Han MK. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in women: a biologically focused review with a systematic search strategy. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2020;15:711-721.Full text  Abstract

15. Lamprecht B, McBurnie MA, Vollmer WM, et al. COPD in never smokers: results from the population-based burden of obstructive lung disease study. Chest. 2011 Apr;139(4):752-63.Full text  Abstract

16. Syamlal G, Doney B, Mazurek JM. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence among adults who have never smoked, by industry and occupation - United States, 2013-2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Apr 5;68(13):303-7.Full text  Abstract

17. Raherison C, Girodet PO. Epidemiology of COPD. Eur Respir Rev. 2009 Dec;18(114):213-21.Full text  Abstract

18. Park J, Kim HJ, Lee CH, et al. Impact of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Res. 2021 Mar;194:110703.Full text  Abstract

19. Zhu RX, Nie XH, Chen YH, et al. Relationship between particulate matter (PM2.5) and hospitalizations and mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: a meta-analysis. Am J Med Sci. 2020 Jun;359(6):354-64. Abstract

20. Peng C, Yan Y, Li Z, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by inhalation of dust: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 Aug 21;99(34):e21908.Full text  Abstract

21. Faruque MO, Boezen HM, Kromhout H, et al. Airborne occupational exposures and the risk of developing respiratory symptoms and airway obstruction in the Lifelines Cohort Study. Thorax. 2021 Mar 2;76(8):790-7.Full text  Abstract

22. Lytras T, Kogevinas M, Kromhout H, et al. Occupational exposures and 20-year incidence of COPD: the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Thorax. 2018 Nov;73(11):1008-15.Full text  Abstract

23. Shin S, Bai L, Burnett RT, et al. Air pollution as a risk factor for incident chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. A 15-year population-based cohort study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021 May 1;203(9):1138-48. Abstract

24. Liu S, Lim YH, Pedersen M, et al. Long-term air pollution and road traffic noise exposure and COPD: the Danish Nurse Cohort. Eur Respir J. 2021 Dec 2;58(6):2004594. Abstract

25. Eapen MS, Sohal SS. Update on the pathogenesis of COPD. N Engl J Med. 2019 Dec 19;381(25):2483-4. Abstract

26. Lange P, Celli B, Agustí A, et al. Lung-Function Trajectories Leading to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. N Engl J Med. 2015 Jul 9;373(2):111-22.Full text  Abstract

27. Lawlor DA, Ebrahim S, Davey Smith G. Association of birth weight with adult lung function: findings from the British Women's Heart and Health Study and a meta-analysis. Thorax. 2005 Oct;60(10):851-8.Full text  Abstract

28. David B, Bafadhel M, Koenderman L, et al. Eosinophilic inflammation in COPD: from an inflammatory marker to a treatable trait. Thorax. 2021 Feb;76(2):188-95.Full text  Abstract

29. Keatings VM, Collins PD, Scott DM, et al. Differences in interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in induced sputum from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996 Feb;153(2):530-4. Abstract

30. Repine JE, Bast A, Lankhorst I; Oxidative Stress Study Group. Oxidative stress in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997 Aug;156(2 Pt 1):341-57.Full text  Abstract

31. O'Donnell DE, Revill SM, Webb KA. Dynamic hyperinflation and exercise intolerance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Sep 1;164(5):770-7.Full text  Abstract

32. Blanco I, Diego I, Bueno P, et al. Prevalence of α1-antitrypsin PiZZ genotypes in patients with COPD in Europe: a systematic review. Eur Respir Rev. 2020 Jul 21;29(157):200014.Full text  Abstract

33. Li LS, Paquet C, Johnston K, et al. "What are my chances of developing COPD if one of my parents has the disease?" A systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence of co-occurrence of COPD diagnosis in parents and offspring. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2017 Jan 24;12:403-15.Full text  Abstract

34. Bellou V, Belbasis L, Konstantinidis AK, et al. Elucidating the risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an umbrella review of meta-analyses. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2019 Jan 1;23(1):58-66. Abstract

35. Gilkes A, Hull S, Durbaba S, et al. Ethnic differences in smoking intensity and COPD risk: an observational study in primary care. NPJ Prim Care Respir Med. 2017 Sep 4;27(1):50.Full text  Abstract

36. Chan KH, Kurmi OP, Bennett DA, et al. Solid fuel use and risks of respiratory diseases. A cohort study of 280,000 Chinese never-smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Feb 1;199(3):352-61.Full text  Abstract

37. Blanc PD, Annesi-Maesano I, Balmes JR, et al. The occupational burden of nonmalignant respiratory diseases. An official American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society statement. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Jun 1;199(11):1312-34.Full text  Abstract

38. Xu X, Weiss ST, Rijcken B, et al. Smoking, changes in smoking habits, and rate of decline in FEV1: new insight into gender differences. Eur Respir J. 1994 Jun;7(6):1056-61.Full text  Abstract

39. Anthonisen NR, Connett JE, Kiley JP, et al. Effects of smoking intervention and the use of an inhaled anticholinergic bronchodilator on the rate of decline of FEV1. The Lung Health Study. JAMA. 1994 Nov 16;272(19):1497-505. Abstract

40. Silverman EK, Weiss ST, Drazen JM, et al. Gender-related differences in severe, early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Dec;162(6):2152-8.Full text  Abstract

41. Calverley PM, Anderson JA, Celli B. Salmeterol and fluticasone propionate and survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 2007 Feb 22;356(8):775-89.Full text  Abstract

42. Prescott E, Lange P, Vestbo J. Socioeconomic status, lung function and admission to hospital for COPD: results from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Eur Respir J. 1999 May;13(5):1109-14.Full text  Abstract

43. Ma Y, Tong H, Zhang X, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Respir Res. 2019 Jul 9;20(1):144.Full text  Abstract

44. Gratziou C. Respiratory, cardiovascular and other physiological consequences of smoking cessation. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009 Feb;25(2):535-45. Abstract

45. Public Health England. Improving outdoor air quality and health: review of interventions. March 2020 [internet publication].Full text

46. Qaseem A, Wilt TJ, Weinberger SE, et al. Diagnosis and management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a clinical practice guideline update from the American College of Physicians, American College of Chest Physicians, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. Ann Intern Med. 2011 Aug 2;155(3):179-91.Full text  Abstract

47. Jing JY, Huang TC, Cui W, et al. Should FEV1/FEV6 replace FEV1/FVC ratio to detect airway obstruction? A metaanalysis. Chest. 2009 Apr;135(4):991-8. Abstract

48. Hurst JR, Vestbo J, Anzueto A, et al. Susceptibility to exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 2010 Sep 16;363(12):1128-38.Full text  Abstract

49. World Health Organization. Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency: memorandum from a WHO meeting. Bull World Health Organ. 1997;75(5):397-415.Full text  Abstract

50. US Preventive Services Task Force., Krist AH, Davidson KW, et al. Screening for lung cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2021 Mar 9;325(10):962-70.Full text  Abstract

51. Marin JM, Soriano JB, Carrizo SJ, et al. Outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea: the overlap syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010 Aug 1;182(3):325-31.Full text  Abstract

52. Gibson GJ, MacNee W. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: investigations and assessment of severity. Eur Respir Monogr. 1998;7:25-40.

53. Johnston KN, Potter AJ, Phillips A. Measurement properties of short lower extremity functional exercise tests in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: systematic review. Phys Ther. 2017 Sep 1;97(9):926-43.Full text  Abstract

54. Siafakas NM, Vermeire P, Pride NB, et al. Optimal assessment and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The European Respiratory Society Task Force. Eur Respir J. 1995 Aug;8(8):1398-420.Full text  Abstract

55. Siu AL, Bibbins-Domingo K, et al. Screening for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2016 Apr 5;315(13):1372-7.Full text  Abstract

56. Welte T, Vogelmeier C, Papi A. COPD: early diagnosis and treatment to slow disease progression. Int J Clin Pract. 2015 Mar;69(3):336-49.Full text  Abstract

57. Celli BR, Anderson JA, Cowans NJ, et al. Pharmacotherapy and lung function decline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A systematic review. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021 Mar 15;203(6):689-98.Full text  Abstract

58. Lemmens KM, Nieboer AP, Huijsman R. A systematic review of integrated use of disease-management interventions in asthma and COPD. Respir Med. 2009 May;103(5):670-91. Abstract

59. Poot CC, Meijer E, Kruis AL, et al. Integrated disease management interventions for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Sep 8;9:CD009437.Full text  Abstract

60. Vogelmeier C, Hederer B, Glaab T, et al. Tiotropium versus salmeterol for the prevention of exacerbations of COPD. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:1093-1103. Abstract

61. Decramer ML, Chapman KR, Dahl R, et al; INVIGORATE investigators. Once-daily indacaterol versus tiotropium for patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (INVIGORATE): a randomised, blinded, parallel-group study. Lancet Respir Med. 2013;1:524-533. Abstract

62. Bafadhel M, Peterson S, De Blas MA, et al. Predictors of exacerbation risk and response to budesonide in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a post-hoc analysis of three randomised trials. Lancet Respir Med. 2018 Feb;6(2):117-26. Abstract

63. Harries TH, Rowland V, Corrigan CJ, et al. Blood eosinophil count, a marker of inhaled corticosteroid effectiveness in preventing COPD exacerbations in post-hoc RCT and observational studies: systematic review and meta-analysis. Respir Res. 2020 Jan 3;21(1):3.Full text  Abstract

64. Oshagbemi OA, Odiba JO, Daniel A, et al. Absolute blood eosinophil counts to guide inhaled corticosteroids therapy among patients with COPD: systematic review and meta-analysis. Curr Drug Targets. 2019;20(16):1670-9. Abstract

65. Siddiqui SH, Guasconi A, Vestbo J, et al. Blood eosinophils: a biomarker of response to extrafine beclomethasone/formoterol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Aug 15;192(4):523-5.Full text  Abstract

66. Singh D, Papi A, Corradi M, et al. Single inhaler triple therapy versus inhaled corticosteroid plus long-acting β2-agonist therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (TRILOGY): a double-blind, parallel group, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2016 Sep 3;388(10048):963-73. Abstract

67. Vestbo J, Papi A, Corradi M, et al. Single inhaler extrafine triple therapy versus long-acting muscarinic antagonist therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (TRINITY): a double-blind, parallel group, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2017 May 13;389(10082):1919-29. Abstract

68. Papi A, Vestbo J, Fabbri L, et al. Extrafine inhaled triple therapy versus dual bronchodilator therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (TRIBUTE): a double-blind, parallel group, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2018 Mar 17;391(10125):1076-84. Abstract

69. Lipson DA, Barnacle H, Birk R, et al. FULFIL Trial: once-daily triple therapy for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 Aug 15;196(4):438-46.Full text  Abstract

70. Lipson DA, Barnhart F, Brealey N, et al. Once-daily single-inhaler triple versus dual therapy in patients with COPD. N Engl J Med. 2018 May 3;378(18):1671-80. Abstract

71. Rojas-Reyes MX, García Morales OM, Dennis RJ, et al. Combination inhaled steroid and long-acting beta₂-agonist in addition to tiotropium versus tiotropium or combination alone for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jun 6;(6):CD008532.Full text  Abstract

72. Lai CC, Chen CH, Lin CYH, et al. The effects of single inhaler triple therapy vs single inhaler dual therapy or separate triple therapy for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2019;14:1539-48. Abstract

73. Cazzola M, Rogliani P, Calzetta L, et al. Triple therapy versus single and dual long-acting bronchodilator therapy in COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir J. 2018 Dec 13;52(6):1801586.Full text  Abstract

74. Rabe KF, Martinez FJ, Ferguson GT, et al. Triple inhaled therapy at two glucocorticoid doses in moderate-to-very-severe COPD. N Engl J Med. 2020 Jul 2;383(1):35-48. Abstract

75. Nici L, Mammen MJ, Charbek E, et al. Pharmacologic management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. an official American Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020 May 1;201(9):e56-e69.Full text  Abstract

76. Chapman KR, Hurst JR, Frent SM, et al. Long-term triple therapy de-escalation to indacaterol/glycopyrronium in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (SUNSET): a randomized, double-blind, triple-dummy clinical trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018 Aug 1;198(3):329-39.Full text  Abstract

77. Appleton S, Jones T, Poole P, et al. Ipratropium bromide versus short acting beta-2 agonists for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Apr 19;(2):CD001387.Full text  Abstract

78. Chen AM, Bollmeier SG, Finnegan PM, et al. Long-acting bronchodilator therapy for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ann Pharmacother. 2008 Dec;42(12):1832-42. Abstract

79. Halpin DM, Vogelmeier C, Pieper MP, et al. Effect of tiotropium on COPD exacerbations: a systematic review. Respir Med. 2016 May;114:1-8.Full text  Abstract

80. Ismaila AS, Huisman EL, Punekar YS, et al. Comparative efficacy of long-acting muscarinic antagonist monotherapies in COPD: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2015 Nov 16;10:2495-517.Full text  Abstract

81. Hilleman DE, Malesker MA, Morrow LE, et al. A systematic review of the cardiovascular risk of inhaled anticholinergics in patients with COPD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2009;4:253-63.Full text  Abstract

82. Wang MT, Liou JT, Lin CW, et al. Association of cardiovascular risk with inhaled long-acting bronchodilators in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a nested case-control study. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Feb 1;178(2):229-38. Abstract

83. Wise RA, Chapman KR, Scirica BM, et al. Effect of aclidinium bromide on major cardiovascular events and exacerbations in high-risk patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the ASCENT-COPD randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2019 May 7;321(17):1693-1701.Full text  Abstract

84. Gershon AS, Newman AM, Fischer HD, et al. Inhaled long-acting anticholinergics and urinary tract infection in individuals with COPD. COPD. 2017 Feb;14(1):105-12. Abstract

85. Rabe KF, Timmer W, Sagkriotis A, et al. Comparison of a combination of tiotropium plus formoterol to salmeterol plus fluticasone in moderate COPD. Chest. 2008 Aug;134(2):255-62. Abstract

86. Vogelmeier C, Hederer B, Glaab T, et al; POET-COPD Investigators. Tiotropium versus salmeterol for the prevention of exacerbations of COPD. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:1093-1103.Full text  Abstract

87. Celli B, Decramer M, Kesten S, et al. UPLIFT Study Investigators. Mortality in the 4-year trial of tiotropium (UPLIFT) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;180:948-955.Full text  Abstract

88. Tashkin DP, Littner M, Andrews CP, et al. Concomitant treatment with nebulized formoterol and tiotropium in subjects with COPD: a placebo-controlled trial. Respir Med. 2008 Apr;102(4):479-87. Abstract

89. Tashkin DP, Pearle J, Iezzoni D, et al. Formoterol and tiotropium compared with tiotropium alone for treatment of COPD. COPD. 2009 Feb;6(1):17-25. Abstract

90. Vogelmeier C, Kardos P, Harari S, et al. Formoterol mono- and combination therapy with tiotropium in patients with COPD: a 6-month study. Respir Med. 2008 Nov;102(11):1511-20. Abstract

91. Maltais F, Bjermer L, Kerwin EM, et al. Efficacy of umeclidinium/vilanterol versus umeclidinium and salmeterol monotherapies in symptomatic patients with COPD not receiving inhaled corticosteroids: the EMAX randomised trial. Respir Res. 2019 Oct 30;20(1):238.Full text  Abstract

92. Maqsood U, Ho TN, Palmer K, et al. Once daily long-acting beta2-agonists and long-acting muscarinic antagonists in a combined inhaler versus placebo for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Mar 6;3:CD012930.Full text  Abstract

93. Horita N, Goto A, Shibata Y, et al. Long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) plus long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) versus LABA plus inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Feb 10;(2):CD012066.Full text  Abstract

94. Schlueter M, Gonzalez-Rojas N, Baldwin M, et al. Comparative efficacy of fixed-dose combinations of long-acting muscarinic antagonists and long-acting beta2-agonists: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Ther Adv Respir Dis. 2016 Apr;10(2):89-104.Full text  Abstract

95. Spencer S, Calverley PM, Burge PS, et al. Impact of preventing exacerbations on deterioration of health status in COPD. Eur Respir J. 2004 May;23(5):698-702.Full text  Abstract

96. Sin DD, Wu L, Anderson JA, et al. Inhaled corticosteroids and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. 2005 Dec;60(12):992-7. Abstract

97. Lee HW, Park J, Jo J, et al. Comparisons of exacerbations and mortality among regular inhaled therapies for patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2019 Nov;16(11):e1002958.Full text  Abstract

98. Wedzicha JA, Banerji D, Chapman KR, et al; FLAME Investigators. Indacaterol-glycopyrronium versus salmeterol-fluticasone for COPD. N Engl J Med. 2016 Jun 9;374(23):2222-34.Full text  Abstract

99. Pascoe S, Barnes N, Brusselle G, et al. Blood eosinophils and treatment response with triple and dual combination therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: analysis of the IMPACT trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2019 Sep;7(9):745-56. Abstract

100. Sonnex K, Alleemudder H, Knaggs R. Impact of smoking status on the efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review. BMJ Open. 2020 Apr 15;10(4):e037509.Full text  Abstract

101. Whittaker HR, Jarvis D, Sheikh MR, et al. Inhaled corticosteroids and FEV1 decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review. Respir Res. 2019 Dec 4;20(1):277.Full text  Abstract

102. Yang IA, Clarke MS, Sim EH, et al. Inhaled corticosteroids for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Jul 11;(7):CD002991.Full text  Abstract

103. Suissa S, Patenaude V, Lapi F, et al. Inhaled corticosteroids in COPD and the risk of serious pneumonia. Thorax. 2013 Nov;68(11):1029-36.Full text  Abstract

104. Lodise TP, Li J, Gandhi HN, et al. Intraclass difference in pPneumonia risk with fluticasone and budesonide in COPD: a systematic review of evidence from direct-comparison studies. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2020;15:2889-900.Full text  Abstract

105. Yang M, Du Y, Chen H, et al. Inhaled corticosteroids and risk of pneumonia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int Immunopharmacol. 2019 Dec;77:105950. Abstract

106. Eklöf J, Ingebrigtsen TS, Sørensen R, et al. Use of inhaled corticosteroids and risk of acquiring Pseudomonas aeruginosa in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. 2021 Aug 26;thoraxjnl-2021-217160.Full text  Abstract

107. Festic E, Bansal V, Gupta E, et al. Association of inhaled corticosteroids with incident pneumonia and mortality in COPD patients; systematic review and meta-analysis. COPD. 2016 Jun;13(3):312-26.Full text  Abstract

108. Welte T. Inhaled corticosteroids in COPD and the risk of pneumonia. Lancet. 2009 Aug 29;374(9691):668-70. Abstract

109. Kew KM, Seniukovich A. Inhaled steroids and risk of pneumonia for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Mar 10;(3):CD010115.Full text  Abstract

110. Dong YH, Chang CH, Lin Wu FL, et al. Use of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with COPD and the risk of TB and influenza: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Chest. 2014 Jun;145(6):1286-97. Abstract

111. Castellana G, Castellana M, Castellana C, et al. Inhaled corticosteroids and risk of tuberculosis in patients with obstructive lung diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of non-randomized studies. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2019;14:2219-27.Full text  Abstract

112. Agusti A, Fabbri LM, Singh D, et al. Inhaled corticosteroids in COPD: friend or foe? Eur Respir J. 2018 Dec 13;52(6):1801219.Full text  Abstract

113. Chalmers JD, Laska IF, Franssen FME, et al. Withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids in COPD: a European Respiratory Society guideline. Eur Respir J. 2020 Jun 4;55(6):2000351.Full text  Abstract

114. Tricco AC, Strifler L, Veroniki AA, et al. Comparative safety and effectiveness of long-acting inhaled agents for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2015 Oct 26;5(10):e009183.Full text  Abstract

115. Nannini LJ, Lasserson TJ, Poole P. Combined corticosteroid and long-acting beta(2)-agonist in one inhaler versus long-acting beta(2)-agonists for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Sep 12;(9):CD006829.Full text  Abstract

116. Nannini LJ, Poole P, Milan SJ, et al. Combined corticosteroid and long-acting beta(2)-agonist in one inhaler versus inhaled corticosteroids alone for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Aug 30;(8):CD006826.Full text  Abstract

117. Kerkhof M, Voorham J, Dorinsky P, et al. Association between COPD exacerbations and lung function decline during maintenance therapy. Thorax. 2020 Sep;75(9):744-53.Full text  Abstract

118. Lipson DA, Crim C, Criner GJ, et al. Reduction in all-cause mortality with fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium/vilanterol in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020 Jun 15;201(12):1508-16.Full text  Abstract

119. Martinez FJ, Rabe KF, Ferguson GT, et al. Reduced all-cause mortality in the ETHOS trial of budesonide/glycopyrrolate/formoterol for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021 Mar 1;203(5):553-64.Full text  Abstract

120. Vestbo J, Fabbri L, Papi A, et al. Inhaled corticosteroid containing combinations and mortality in COPD. Eur Respir J. 2018 Dec 13;52(6):1801230.Full text  Abstract

121. Axson EL, Lewis A, Potts J, et al. Inhaled therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2020 Sep 29;10(9):e036455.Full text  Abstract

122. Rogliani P, Ritondo BL, Gabriele M, et al. Optimizing de-escalation of inhaled corticosteroids in COPD: a systematic review of real-world findings. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2020 Sep;13(9):977-90.Full text  Abstract

123. Janjua S, Fortescue R, Poole P. Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 May 1;5:CD002309.Full text  Abstract

124. Simoens S, Laekeman G, Decramer M. Preventing COPD exacerbations with macrolides: a review and budget impact analysis. Respir Med. 2013 May;107(5):637-48. Abstract

125. Lee JS, Park DA, Hong Y, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of prophylactic antibiotics in COPD and/or chronic bronchitis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2013 Feb;17(2):153-62. Abstract

126. Uzun S, Djamin RS, Kluytmans JA, et al. Azithromycin maintenance treatment in patients with frequent exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COLUMBUS): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Respir Med. 2014 May;2(5):361-8.Full text  Abstract

127. Janjua S, Mathioudakis AG, Fortescue R, et al. Prophylactic antibiotics for adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Jan 15;1:CD013198.Full text  Abstract

128. Herath SC, Normansell R, Maisey S, et al. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Oct 30;10:CD009764.Full text  Abstract

129. Han MK, Tayob N, Murray S, et al. Predictors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation reduction in response to daily azithromycin therapy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014;189:1503-1508.Full text  Abstract

130. Albert RK, Connett J, Bailey WC, et al. Azithromycin for prevention of exacerbations of COPD. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:689-698. Abstract

131. Smith D, Du Rand I, Addy CL, et al. British Thoracic Society guideline for the use of long-term macrolides in adults with respiratory disease. Thorax. 2020 May;75(5):370-404.Full text  Abstract

132. Threapleton CJ, Janjua S, Fortescue R, et al. Head-to-head oral prophylactic antibiotic therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 May 24;5:CD013024.Full text  Abstract

133. Ram FSF, Jones P, Jardim J, et al. Oral theophylline for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(4):CD003902. Abstract

134. Jenkins CR, Wen FQ, Martin A, et al. The effect of low-dose corticosteroids and theophylline on the risk of acute exacerbations of COPD: the TASCS randomised controlled trial. Eur Respir J. 2021 Jun 10;57(6):2003338.Full text  Abstract

135. Lenferink A, Brusse-Keizer M, van der Valk PD, et al. Self-management interventions including action plans for exacerbations versus usual care in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Aug 4;(8):CD011682.Full text  Abstract

136. Aboumatar H, Naqibuddin M, Chung S, et al. Effect of a hospital-initiated program combining transitional care and long-term self-management support on outcomes of patients hospitalized with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2019 Oct 8;322(14):1371-80.Full text  Abstract

137. Sampaio MS, Vieira WA, Bernardino ÍM, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a risk factor for suicide: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Respir Med. 2019 May;151:11-18.Full text  Abstract

138. Russell S, Ogunbayo OJ, Newham JJ, et al. Qualitative systematic review of barriers and facilitators to self-management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: views of patients and healthcare professionals. NPJ Prim Care Respir Med. 2018 Jan 17;28(1):2.Full text  Abstract

139. Pollok J, van Agteren JE, Esterman AJ, et al. Psychological therapies for the treatment of depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Mar 6;3:CD012347.Full text  Abstract

140. Ma RC, Yin YY, Wang YQ, et al. Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2020 Feb;38:101071. Abstract

141. Williams MT, Johnston KN, Paquet C. Cognitive behavioral therapy for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: rapid review. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2020;15:903-19.Full text  Abstract

142. Jolly K, Sidhu MS, Hewitt CA, et al. Self management of patients with mild COPD in primary care: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2018 Jun 13;361:k2241.Full text  Abstract

143. Long H, Howells K, Peters S, et al. Does health coaching improve health-related quality of life and reduce hospital admissions in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Health Psychol. 2019 Sep;24(3):515-46.Full text  Abstract

144. Cho-Reyes S, Celli BR, Dembek C, et al. Inhalation technique errors with metered-dose inhalers among patients with obstructive lung diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of US Studies. Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis. 2019 Jul 24;6(3):267-80.Full text  Abstract

145. Melani AS, Bonavia M, Cilenti V, et al. Inhaler mishandling remains common in real life and is associated with reduced disease control. Respir Med. 2011 Jun;105(6):930-8.Full text  Abstract

146. Rootmensen GN, van Keimpema AR, Jansen HM, et al. Predictors of incorrect inhalation technique in patients with asthma or COPD: a study using a validated videotaped scoring method. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2010 Oct;23(5):323-8. Abstract

147. Price D, Keininger DL, Viswanad B, et al. Factors associated with appropriate inhaler use in patients with COPD - lessons from the REAL survey. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2018;13:695-702.Full text  Abstract

148. Maricoto T, Monteiro L, Gama JMR, et al. Inhaler technique education and exacerbation risk in older adults with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2019 Jan;67(1):57-66. Abstract

149. Jia X, Zhou S, Luo D, et al. Effect of pharmacist-led interventions on medication adherence and inhalation technique in adult patients with asthma or COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2020 Oct;45(5):904-17.Full text  Abstract

150. Willard-Grace R, Chirinos C, Wolf J, et al. Lay health coaching to increase appropriate inhaler use in COPD: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Fam Med. 2020 Jan;18(1):5-14.Full text  Abstract

151. Navaie M, Dembek C, Cho-Reyes S, et al. Inhaler device feature preferences among patients with obstructive lung diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 Jun 19;99(25):e20718.Full text  Abstract

152. Tervonen T, Hawken N, Hanania NA, et al. Maintenance inhaler therapy preferences of patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a discrete choice experiment. Thorax. 2020 Sep;75(9):735-43.Full text  Abstract

153. Lahham A, McDonald CF, Holland AE. Exercise training alone or with the addition of activity counseling improves physical activity levels in COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2016 Dec 8;11:3121-36.Full text  Abstract

154. Vooijs M, Siemonsma PC, Heus I, et al. Therapeutic validity and effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Rehabil. 2016 Nov;30(11):1037-48. Abstract

155. Ward TJC, Plumptre CD, Dolmage TE, et al. Change in VO2peak in response to aerobic exercise training and the relationship with exercise prescription in people with COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Chest. 2020 Jul;158(1):131-14.Full text  Abstract

156. Paneroni M, Vitacca M, Venturelli M, et al. The impact of exercise training on fatigue in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pulmonology. 2020 Sep - Oct;26(5):304-13. Abstract

157. Taylor D, Jenkins AR, Parrott K, et al. Efficacy of unsupervised exercise in adults with obstructive lung disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Thorax. 2021 Jun;76(6):591-600. Abstract

158. Burge AT, Cox NS, Abramson MJ, et al. Interventions for promoting physical activity in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Apr 16;4:CD012626.Full text  Abstract

159. Cramer H, Haller H, Klose P, et al. The risks and benefits of yoga for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Rehabil. 2019 Dec;33(12):1847-62. Abstract

160. Tong H, Liu Y, Zhu Y, et al. The therapeutic effects of qigong in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the stable stage: a meta-analysis. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2019 Sep 4;19(1):239.Full text  Abstract

161. Lu Y, Li P, Li N, et al. Effects of home-based breathing exercises in subjects with COPD. Respir Care. 2020 Mar;65(3):377-87.Full text  Abstract

162. Liu X, Fu C, Hu W, et al. The effect of Tai Chi on the pulmonary rehabilitation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Palliat Med. 2021 Apr;10(4):3763-82.Full text  Abstract

163. Collins PF, Elia M, Stratton RJ. Nutritional support and functional capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Respirology. 2013 May;18(4):616-29.Full text  Abstract

164. Ferreira IM, Brooks D, White J, et al. Nutritional supplementation for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Dec 12;12:CD000998.Full text  Abstract

165. Gonzales D, Rennard SI, Nides M, et al; Varenicline Phase 3 Study Group. Varenicline, an alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, vs sustained-release bupropion and placebo for smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006 Jul 5;296(1):47-55.Full text  Abstract

166. Hoogendoorn M, Feenstra TL, Hoogenveen RT, et al. Long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in patients with COPD. Thorax. 2010 Aug;65(8):711-8. Abstract

167. Warnier MJ, van Riet EE, Rutten FH, et al. Smoking cessation strategies in patients with COPD. Eur Respir J. 2013 Mar;41(3):727-34. Abstract

168. van Eerd EA, van der Meer RM, van Schayck OC, et al. Smoking cessation for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Aug 20;(8):CD010744.Full text  Abstract

169. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lung disease including asthma and adult vaccination. Feb 2021 [internet publication].Full text

170. Walters JA, Tang JN, Poole P, et al. Pneumococcal vaccines for preventing pneumonia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jan 24;(1):CD001390.Full text  Abstract

171. Kopsaftis Z, Wood-Baker R, Poole P. Influenza vaccine for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Jun 26;(6):CD002733.Full text  Abstract

172. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pneumococcal vaccination: summary of who and when to vaccinate. August 2020 [internet publication].Full text

173. Poole P, Sathananthan K, Fortescue R. Mucolytic agents versus placebo for chronic bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 May 20;5:CD001287.Full text  Abstract

174. Rogliani P, Matera MG, Page C, et al. Efficacy and safety profile of mucolytic/antioxidant agents in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a comparative analysis across erdosteine, carbocysteine, and N-acetylcysteine. Respir Res. 2019 May 27;20(1):104.Full text  Abstract

175. Wei J, Pang CS, Han J, et al. Effect of Orally Administered N-Acetylcysteine on Chronic Bronchitis: A Meta-analysis. Adv Ther. 2019 Dec;36(12):3356-3367.Full text  Abstract

176. McCarthy B, Casey D, Devane D, et al. Pulmonary rehabilitation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(2):CD003793.Full text  Abstract

177. Marciniuk DD, Brooks D, Butcher S, et al. Canadian Thoracic Society COPD Committee Expert Working Group. Optimizing pulmonary rehabilitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - practical issues: a Canadian Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline. Can Respir J. 2010 Jul-Aug;17(4):159-68. Abstract

178. Puhan MA, Gimeno-Santos E, Cates CJ, et al. Pulmonary rehabilitation following exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Dec 8;(12):CD005305.Full text  Abstract

179. Lindenauer PK, Stefan MS, Pekow PS, et al. Association between initiation of pulmonary rehabilitation after hospitalization for COPD and 1-year survival among medicare beneficiaries. JAMA. 2020 May 12;323(18):1813-23.Full text  Abstract

180. Stefan MS, Pekow PS, Priya A, et al. Association between initiation of pulmonary rehabilitation and rehospitalizations in patients hospitalized with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2021 Nov 1;204(9):1015-23.Full text  Abstract

181. Greening NJ, Williams JE, Hussain SF, et al. An early rehabilitation intervention to enhance recovery during hospital admission for an exacerbation of chronic respiratory disease: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2014;349:g4315.Full text  Abstract

182. Casaburi R, ZuWallack R. Pulmonary rehabilitation for management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 2009 Mar 26;360(13):1329-35. Abstract

183. Guell R, Casan P, Belda J, et al. Long-term effects of outpatient rehabilitation of COPD: a randomized trial. Chest. 2000 Apr;117(4):976-83. Abstract

184. Malaguti C, Dal Corso S, Janjua S, et al. Supervised maintenance programmes following pulmonary rehabilitation compared to usual care for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Aug 17;8:CD013569.Full text  Abstract

185. Maltais F, Bourbeau J, Shapiro S, et al. Effects of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2008 Dec 16;149(12):869-78. Abstract

186. Neves LF, Reis MH, Gonçalves TR. Home or community-based pulmonary rehabilitation for individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cad Saude Publica. 2016 Jun 20;32(6):S0102-311X2016000602001.Full text  Abstract

187. Holland AE, Mahal A, Hill CJ, et al. Home-based rehabilitation for COPD using minimal resources: a randomised, controlled equivalence trial. Thorax. 2017 Jan;72(1):57-65.Full text  Abstract

188. Cox NS, Dal Corso S, Hansen H, et al. Telerehabilitation for chronic respiratory disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Jan 29;1:CD013040.Full text  Abstract

189. Jacobs SS, Krishnan JA, Lederer DJ, et al. Home oxygen therapy for adults with chronic lung disease. An official American Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020 Nov 15;202(10):e121-41.Full text  Abstract

190. Ekström M, Ahmadi Z, Bornefalk-Hermansson A, et al. Oxygen for breathlessness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who do not qualify for home oxygen therapy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Nov 25;(11):CD006429.Full text  Abstract

191. Edvardsen A, Akerø A, Christensen CC, et al. Air travel and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a new algorithm for pre-flight evaluation. Thorax. 2012 Nov;67(11):964-9.Full text  Abstract

192. Marin JM, Soriano JB, Carrizo SJ, et al. Outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea: the overlap syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;182:325-331.Full text  Abstract

193. Wilson ME, Dobler CC, Morrow AS, et al. Association of home noninvasive positive pressure ventilation with clinical outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2020 Feb 4;323(5):455-65.Full text  Abstract

194. Raveling T, Vonk J, Struik FM, et al. Chronic non-invasive ventilation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Aug 9;8:CD002878.Full text  Abstract

195. He X, Luo L, Ma Y, et al. Efficacy of domiciliary noninvasive ventilation on clinical outcomes in posthospital chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Ann Palliat Med. 2021 May;10(5):5137-45. Abstract

196. Macrea M, Oczkowski S, Rochwerg B, et al. Long-term noninvasive ventilation in chronic stable hypercapnic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. An official American Thoracic Society clinical practice fuideline. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020 Aug 15;202(4):e74-e87.Full text  Abstract

197. Ergan B, Oczkowski S, Rochwerg B, et al. European Respiratory Society guidelines on long-term home non-invasive ventilation for management of COPD. Eur Respir J. 2019 Sep 28;54(3):1901003.Full text  Abstract

198. Kaminska M, Rimmer KP, McKim DA, et al. Long-term non-invasive ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): 2021 Canadian Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline update. Canadian Journal of Respiratory, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine. 2021;5(3):160-83.Full text

199. van Agteren JE, Hnin K, Grosser D, et al. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction procedures for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Feb 23;(2):CD012158.Full text  Abstract

200. van Agteren JE, Carson KV, Tiong LU, et al. Lung volume reduction surgery for diffuse emphysema. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Oct 14;(10):CD001001.Full text  Abstract

201. van Geffen WH, Slebos DJ, Herth FJ, et al. Surgical and endoscopic interventions that reduce lung volume for emphysema: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Respir Med. 2019 Apr;7(4):313-24. Abstract

202. Klooster K, Slebos DJ, Zoumot Z, et al. Endobronchial valves for emphysema: an individual patient-level reanalysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ Open Respir Res. 2017 Nov 2;4(1):e000214.Full text  Abstract

203. Labarca G, Uribe JP, Pacheco C, et al. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction with endobronchial zephyr valves for severe emphysema: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Respiration. 2019;98(3):268-78. Abstract

204. Abia-Trujillo D, Johnson MM, Patel NM, et al. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction: a new hope for patients with severe emphysema and air trapping. Mayo Clin Proc. 2021 Feb;96(2):464-72. Abstract

205. Leard LE, Holm AM, Valapour M, et al. Consensus document for the selection of lung transplant candidates: an update from the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2021 Nov;40(11):1349-79.Full text  Abstract

206. Stavem K, Bjørtuft Ø, Borgan Ø, et al. Lung transplantation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a national cohort is without obvious survival benefit. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006 Jan;25(1):75-84. Abstract

207. Carlucci A, Guerrieri A, Nava S. Palliative care in COPD patients: is it only an end-of-life issue? Eur Respir Rev. 2012 Dec 1;21(126):347-54.Full text  Abstract

208. Ekström MP, Bornefalk-Hermansson A, Abernethy AP, et al. Safety of benzodiazepines and opioids in very severe respiratory disease: national prospective study. BMJ. 2014 Jan 30;348:g445.Full text  Abstract

209. Verberkt CA, van den Beuken-van Everdingen MHJ, Schols JMGA, et al. Effect of sustained-release morphine for refractory breathlessness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on health status: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2020 Oct 1;180(10):1306-14.Full text  Abstract

210. Simon ST, Higginson IJ, Booth S, et al. Benzodiazepines for the relief of breathlessness in advanced malignant and non-malignant diseases in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Oct 20;(10):CD007354.Full text  Abstract

211. von Trott P, Oei SL, Ramsenthaler C. Acupuncture for breathlessness in advanced diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2020 Feb;59(2):327-38.e3. Abstract

212. Radovanovic D, Mantero M, Sferrazza Papa GF, et al. Formoterol fumarate + glycopyrrolate for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2016;10:1045-1055. Abstract

213. Raveling T, Vonk J, Struik FM, et al. Chronic non-invasive ventilation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Aug 9;8:CD002878.Full text  Abstract

214. Janda S, Park K, FitzGerald JM, et al. Statins in COPD: a systematic review. Chest. 2009 Sep;136(3):734-43. Abstract

215. Criner GJ, Connett JE, Aaron SD, et al; COPD Clinical Research Network; Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Simvastatin for the prevention of exacerbations in moderate-to-severe COPD. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jun 5;370(23):2201-10.Full text  Abstract

216. Zhang W, Zhang Y, Li CW, et al. Effect of statins on COPD: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Chest. 2017 Dec;152(6):1159-68. Abstract

217. Wang G, Shang W, Ren Y, et al. Benefits of statins in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with pulmonary hypertension: a meta-analysis. Eur J Intern Med. 2019 Dec;70:39-42. Abstract

218. Walsh A, Perrem L, Khashan AS, et al. Statins versus placebo for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jul 31;7:CD011959.Full text  Abstract

219. Brindicci C, Ito K, Torre O, et al. Effects of aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase, on nitric oxide production and its metabolites in healthy control subjects, healthy smokers, and COPD patients. Chest. 2009 Feb;135(2):353-67. Abstract

220. Fowdar K, Chen H, He Z, et al. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis and systematic review. Heart Lung. 2017 Mar-Apr;46(2):120-8. Abstract

221. Pavasini R, Biscaglia S, d'Ascenzo F, et al. Antiplatelet treatment reduces all-cause mortality in COPD patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. COPD. 2016 Aug;13(4):509-14. Abstract

222. Malhotra S, Man SF, Sin DD. Emerging drugs for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2006 May;11(2):275-91. Abstract

223. Fishman A, Martinez F, Naunheim K, et al; National Emphysema Treatment Trial Research Group. A randomized trial comparing lung-volume-reduction surgery with medical therapy for severe emphysema. N Engl J Med. 2003 May 22;348(21):2059-73.Full text  Abstract

224. Valipour A, Herth FJ, Burghuber OC, et al. Target lobe volume reduction and COPD outcome measures after endobronchial valve therapy. Eur Respir J. 2014 Feb;43(2):387-96. Abstract

225. Barnes PJ, Stockley RA. COPD: current therapeutic interventions and future approaches. Eur Respir J. 2005 Jun;25(6):1084-106.Full text  Abstract

226. Sandford AJ, Silverman EK. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 1: Susceptibility factors for COPD the genotype-environment interaction. Thorax. 2002 Aug;57(8):736-41. Abstract

227. Laucho-Contreras ME, Polverino F, Tesfaigzi Y, et al. Club cell protein 16 (CC16) augmentation: a potential disease-modifying approach for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2016 Jul;20(7):869-83.Full text  Abstract

228. Zhang C, Wang Y, Zhang M, et al. Monoclonal antibodies targeting IL-5 or IL-5Rα in eosinophilic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Pharmacol. 2021;12:754268.Full text  Abstract

229. Donovan T, Milan SJ, Wang R, et al. Anti-IL-5 therapies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Dec 8;12:CD013432.Full text  Abstract

230. Pavord ID, Chapman KR, Bafadhel M, et al. Mepolizumab for eosinophil-associated COPD: analysis of METREX and METREO. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2021;16:1755-70.Full text  Abstract

231. Cazzola M, Ora J, Cavalli F, et al. An overview of the safety and efficacy of monoclonal antibodies for the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Biologics. 2021;15:363-74.Full text  Abstract

232. Kikuchi S, Imai H, Tani Y, et al. Proton pump inhibitors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Aug 25;8:CD013113.Full text  Abstract

233. Bourbeau J, Bhutani M, Hernandez P, et al. Canadian Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline on pharmacotherapy in patients with COPD – 2019 update of evidence. Can J Resp Crit Care Sleep Med. 2019;3(4):210-32.Full text

234. Rochester CL, Vogiatzis I, Holland AE, et al. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society policy statement: enhancing implementation, use, and delivery of pulmonary rehabilitation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Dec 1;192(11):1373-86.Full text  Abstract

235. Hanson C, Bowser EK, Frankenfield DC, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a 2019 evidence analysis center evidence-based practice guideline. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2021 Jan;121(1):139-165.e15.Full text  Abstract

236. US Department of Veterans Affairs. VA/DoD clinical practice guideline for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. April 2021 [internet publication].Full text

237. Holland AE, Cox NS, Houchen-Wolloff L, et al. Defining modern pulmonary rehabilitation. An official American Thoracic Society workshop report. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2021 May;18(5):e12-e29.Full text  Abstract

238. Zider AD, Wang X, Buhr RG, et al. Reduced COPD exacerbation risk correlates with improved FEV1: a meta-regression analysis. Chest. 2017 Sep;152(3):494-501. Abstract

239. Guo Y, Zhang T, Wang Z, et al. Body mass index and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A dose-response meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Jul;95(28):e4225.Full text  Abstract

240. Sun Y, Milne S, Jaw JE, et al. BMI is associated with FEV1 decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis of clinical trials. Respir Res. 2019 Oct 29;20(1):236.Full text  Abstract

241. Celli BR, Cote CG, Marin JM, et al. The body-mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity index in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 2004 Mar 4;350(10):1005-12.Full text  Abstract

242. Stolz D, Kostikas K, Blasi F, et al. Adrenomedullin refines mortality prediction by the BODE index in COPD: the "BODE-A" index. Eur Respir J. 2014 Feb;43(2):397-408. Abstract

243. Leuzzi G, Galeone C, Taverna F, et al. C-reactive protein level predicts mortality in COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir Rev. 2017 Jan 31;26(143):160070.Full text  Abstract

244. Stolz D, Meyer A, Rakic J, et al. Mortality risk prediction in COPD by a prognostic biomarker panel. Eur Respir J. 2014 Dec;44(6):1557-70. Abstract

245. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in over 16s: diagnosis and management. July 2019 [internet publication].Full text

246. Almagro P, Soriano JB, Cabrera FJ, et al; Working Group on COPD, Spanish Society of Internal Medicine. Short- and medium-term prognosis in patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbation: the CODEX index. Chest. 2014 May;145(5):972-80. Abstract

247. Gunen H, Hacievliyagil SS, Kosar F, et al. Factors affecting survival of hospitalised patients with COPD. Eur Respir J. 2005 Aug;26(2):234-41.Full text  Abstract

248. Singh S, Amin AV, Loke YK. Long-term use of inhaled corticosteroids and the risk of pneumonia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Feb 9;169(3):219-29.Full text  Abstract

249. Drummond MB, Dasenbrook EC, Pitz MW, et al. Inhaled corticosteroids in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2008 Nov 26;300(20):2407-16.Full text  Abstract

250. Bach PB, Brown C, Gelfand SE, et al. Management of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a summary and appraisal of published evidence. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Apr 3;134(7):600-20. Abstract

251. Klinger JR, Hill NS. Right ventricular dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Evaluation and management. Chest. 1991 Mar;99(3):715-23. Abstract

252. John M, Lange A, Hoernig S, et al. Prevalence of anemia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: comparison to other chronic diseases. Int J Cardiol. 2006 Aug 28;111(3):365-70. Abstract

253. Chambellan A, Chailleux E, Similowski T. Prognostic value of the hematocrit in patients with severe COPD receiving long term oxygen therapy. Chest. 2005 Sep;128(3):1201-8. Abstract

254. Xu Y, Hu T, Ding H, et al. Effects of anemia on the survival of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2020 Dec;14(12):1267-77. Abstract

255. Park HY, Kang D, Shin SH, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer incidence in never smokers: a cohort study. Thorax. 2020 Jun;75(6):506-9.Full text  Abstract

256. Janjua S, Carter D, Threapleton CJ, et al. Telehealth interventions: remote monitoring and consultations for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Jul 20;7:CD013196.Full text  Abstract

257. Iepsen UW, Jørgensen KJ, Ringbæk T, et al. A combination of resistance and endurance training increases leg muscle strength in COPD: An evidence-based recommendation based on systematic review with meta-analyses. Chron Respir Dis. 2015 May;12(2):132-45.Full text  Abstract

258. Jolliffe DA, Greenberg L, Hooper RL, et al. Vitamin D to prevent exacerbations of COPD: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. Thorax. 2019 Apr;74(4):337-45.Full text  Abstract

259. Li X, He J, Yu M, et al. The efficacy of vitamin D therapy for patients with COPD: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Ann Palliat Med. 2020 Mar;9(2):286-297.Full text  Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer