Last reviewed: June 2020
Last updated: September  2019

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • barrel chest
  • hyperresonance on percussion
  • distant breath sounds on auscultation
  • poor air movement on auscultation
  • wheezing on auscultation
  • coarse crackles
  • tachypnea
  • asterixis
  • distended neck veins
  • lower-extremity swelling
  • fatigue
  • headache
  • cyanosis
  • loud P2
  • hepatojugular reflux
  • hepatosplenomegaly
  • clubbing

Risk factors

  • cigarette smoking
  • advanced age
  • genetic factors
  • white ancestry
  • exposure to air pollution or occupational exposure
  • developmentally abnormal lung
  • male sex
  • low socioeconomic status

Diagnostic investigations

Investigations to consider

  • pulmonary function tests
  • chest CT scan
  • sputum culture
  • alpha-1 antitrypsin level
  • exercise testing
  • sleep study
  • respiratory muscle function
More investigations to consider

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Manoochehr Abadian Sharifabad

Fountain Valley Regional Medical Center

Fountain Valley

CA

Disclosures

MAS declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Manoochehr Abadian Sharifabad would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Jonathan P. Parsons and Dr Michael Ezzie, the previous contributors to this topic. JPP has contributed at speakers' bureaus for GlaxoSmithKline, Inc., Schering-Plough, Inc., and AstraZeneca, Inc. ME declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Hackensack University Medical Center

Hackensack

NJ

Disclosures

HA declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor of Medicine

National Jewish Medical and Research Center

University of Colorado Health Sciences Center

Denver

CO

Disclosures

WJ declares that he has no competing interests.

Associate Professor

Director of Respiratory Medicine

Eastern Health & Monash University

Victoria

Australia

Disclosures

FT declares that he has no competing interests.

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