Evidence

Cochrane Clinical Answers

Evidence scores

Evidence A

Reduction in exacerbations: there is good-quality evidence that a combination of an anticholinergic plus a short-acting beta-2 agonist is more effective than a short-acting beta-2 agonist alone at reducing COPD exacerbations at 12 weeks. This combination does not seem to be more effective at reducing exacerbations compared with an anticholinergic alone.

Evidence A

Lung function: there is good-quality evidence that smoking cessation interventions are more effective than usual care at improving FEV1 in people with COPD at 1 to 5 years and at reducing all-cause mortality at 14.5 years.

Evidence A

Reduction in exacerbations: there is good-quality evidence that beta-2 agonists are more effective than placebo at reducing exacerbations at 12 to 52 weeks.

Evidence A

Lung function: there is good-quality evidence that theophylline is more effective than placebo at increasing FEV1. However, its usefulness is limited by adverse effects and the need for frequent monitoring of blood concentrations.

Evidence A

Lung function: there is good-quality evidence that short-acting beta-2 agonists are more effective than placebo at increasing FEV1 and at improving daily breathlessness scores at 1 week.

Evidence B

Lung function: there is medium-quality evidence that ipratropium, a short-acting anticholinergic, is more effective than placebo at improving FEV1 at 12 weeks.

Evidence B

Mortality: there is medium-quality evidence that domiciliary oxygen treatment is more effective than no oxygen supplementation at reducing mortality in people with severe daytime hypoxemia, with continuous oxygen being more effective than nocturnal domiciliary oxygen treatment.

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