Monitoring

Patients with COPD should be evaluated on a regular basis depending on the severity of disease. Mild stable COPD patients may be followed at 6-month intervals, while patients with severe frequent exacerbations, and recently hospitalised patients, need follow-up at 2-week to 1-month intervals. In follow-up sessions, patients should be evaluated to determine adherence to medical regimen, response to therapy, and disease progression. The level of dyspnoea at rest and with exercise should be determined, as well as number of exacerbations. Questionnaires such as the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) can be used to assess symptoms. These can be found in the GOLD guidelines. [1] Smoking status and smoke exposure should be determined at each appointment, followed by appropriate action. [1]

PFTs should be monitored at least every 3 years, to evaluate response to therapy and possible need for change in medications. If any significant change in medication is made or if the patient is on systemic corticosteroids, more frequent PFT monitoring is required. The GOLD guidelines recommend measuring FEV1 by spirometry at least once a year to identify patients who are declining quickly. [1] Oxygen saturation should be monitored and patients evaluated periodically for the need of supplemental oxygen. Patients need to be monitored for short-term and long-term complications of COPD. Patient weight, nutrition status, and physical activity should also be monitored. Cachexia and reduced physical performance are indicators of a poor prognosis.

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