Last reviewed: 28 Jun 2021
Last updated: 09 Jul 2021

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • exposure to Ebola virus in previous 21 days
  • fever
  • myalgia
  • conjunctival injection

Other diagnostic factors

  • fatigue
  • anorexia
  • diarrhea
  • vomiting
  • severe headache
  • abdominal pain or heartburn
  • cough, dyspnea, chest pain
  • sore throat
  • prostration
  • tachypnea
  • maculopapular rash
  • bleeding
  • hepatomegaly
  • lymphadenopathy
  • hiccups
  • tachycardia
  • hypotension
  • neurological signs

Risk factors

  • living or working in, or arrival from, endemic area in previous 21 days
  • contact with infected body fluids
  • occupational exposure
  • butchering or consumption of meat from infected (or potentially infected) animals
  • bioterrorism

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
  • malaria investigations

Investigations to consider

  • serum electrolyte levels
  • BUN/serum creatinine
  • blood lactate
  • ABG
  • CBC
  • coagulation studies
  • urinalysis
  • LFTs
  • serum amylase level
  • blood cultures
  • serum blood glucose
  • antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
  • IgM and IgG antibodies
  • chest x-ray

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

Nicholas J. Beeching, MA, BM BCh, FRCP, FRACP, FFTM RCPS (Glasg), FESCMID, DCH, DTM&H

Consultant and Emeritus Professor of Tropical and Infectious Diseases

Royal Liverpool University Hospital

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine

Liverpool

UK

Disclosures

NJB is partially supported by the National Institute of Health Research Health Protection Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections at the University of Liverpool and Public Health England. Views expressed in this topic are those of the contributor and do not necessarily represent the official position of the National Health Service, the National Institute for Health Research, the Department of Health, or Public Health England. NJB is an author of references cited in this topic.

Manuel Fenech, MD, MRCP, DTM&H

Specialist Trainee in Infectious Diseases

Royal Liverpool University Hospital

Liverpool

UK

Disclosures

MF declares that he has no competing interests.

Tom E. Fletcher, MBE, MBChB, MRCP, DTM&H

Wellcome Trust/MoD Research Fellow

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine

Liverpool

UK

Disclosures

TEF is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph. TEF is a consultant/expert panel member to the World Health Organization, and is funded by the UK Surgeon General and the Wellcome Trust. TEF has received research grants from the Medical Research Council and the UK Public Health Rapid Support Team (UK-PHRST).

Catherine F. Houlihan, MSc, MB ChB, MRCP, DTM&H

Clinical Lecturer

University College London

Honorary Clinical Lecturer

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine

London

UK

Disclosures

CFH declares that she has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Nicholas J. Beeching, Dr Manuel Fenech, Dr Tom E. Fletcher, and Dr Catherine F. Houlihan would like to thank Dr Colin Brown (Infectious Disease Lead, Kings Sierra Leone Partnership) for his helpful comments and insights. CB declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

William A. Petri, Jr, MD, PhD, FACP

Wade Hampton Frost Professor of Epidemiology

Professor of Medicine, Microbiology, and Pathology

Chief

Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health

University of Virginia

Charlottesville

VA

Disclosures

WAP declares that he has no competing interests.

Luis Ostrosky-Zeichner, MD, FACP, FIDSA, FSHEA

Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology

UT Health Medical School

Medical Director of Epidemiology

Memorial Hermann Texas Medical Center

Houston

TX

Disclosures

LO-Z declares that he has no competing interests.

Stephen Mepham, MRCP (UK), FRCPATH, DTM&H, MD

Consultant in Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust

London

UK

Disclosures

SM declares that he has no competing interests.

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