Ebola virus infection is nonspecific in the early stages, which makes the differential diagnosis broad; therefore, clinical suspicion of the infection with prompt isolation is very important in the context of a history of exposure.
Management is centered around early recognition of infection, coupled with effective isolation and optimized supportive care in a hospital setting.
Case fatality rates range from 25% to 90%, but the average rate was approximately 50% in the 2014 outbreak in West Africa (the largest outbreak to date), and 66% in the 2018-2020 outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (the second largest outbreak to date). Survivors often have prolonged ill health with significant disability.
As there is the possibility of infected people traveling, all countries should have tested and practiced protocols ready for screening and managing patients.
Vaccines are available to protect against infection and help control the spread of outbreaks.
A severe, often fatal, zoonotic infection caused by infection by a virus of the Filoviridae family (genus Ebolavirus). There are currently six known species: Zaire ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Tai Forest ebolavirus, Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Reston ebolavirus, and Bombali ebolavirus. Of these, only four are known to cause disease in humans - Zaire, Sudan, Tai Forest, and Bundibugyo ebolavirus. Ebola virus infection is part of the group of conditions known as viral hemorrhagic fevers, and was formerly known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever.
History and exam
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