Commonly complicates severe CAP. Patients have fever, leukocytosis, tachypnoea, tachycardia. Can progress rapidly to multi-organ failure and shock. Follow your local protocol for investigation and treatment of all patients with suspected sepsis, or those at risk. Start treatment promptly. Determine urgency of treatment according to likelihood of infection and severity of illness, or according to your local protocol.
May occur as a result of interruption of the normal bowel flora from antibiotic use. Patients generally have diarrhoea, abdominal pain, and leukocytosis. Stool immunoassay for C difficile enzymes is diagnostic. Ideally, causative antibiotics should be stopped, and treatment is with oral metronidazole, vancomycin, or fidaxomicin.
The incidence of heart failure in hospitalised patients with CAP was 14.1% in one study. There is little information about risk factors for the occurrence of cardiac complications in patients with CAP. Older age, pre-existing congestive heart failure, severity of CAP, and the use of insulin by glucose sliding scales in hospitalised patients are possible risk factors. In patients with known cardiovascular disease, use of pneumococcal and influenza vaccine may reduce morbidity and mortality.
Regarded as a rare complication of CAP in adults. Associated with pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Nocardia species, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Smoking, alcoholism, old age, diabetes mellitus, chronic lung diseases, or liver disease are risk factors associated with necrotising pneumonia.
A rare complication, frequently requiring prolonged antibiotic therapy and, in some cases, surgical drainage.
A rare complication of CAP in adults. Pneumothorax is associated with bacterial pneumonia caused by staphylococcus, streptococcus, and other type of bacteria, which may cause the collapse of a lung.
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