Prognosis

For patients admitted to hospital, mortality rate ranges from 5% to 15%, but increases to 20% to 50% in patients requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU).[6][106] Patients treated in the community generally have a good prognosis.[1]

Risk factors associated with increased 30-day mortality include bacteraemia, admission to the ICU, comorbidities (especially neurological disease), and infection with a potentially multidrug-resistant pathogen (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae).[36][123][124][125]

Readmission rates in patients with CAP range from 7% to 12%.[211][212] In most cases, exacerbation of comorbidities (mainly cardiovascular, pulmonary, or neurological disease) is responsible for readmission.

Prognostic biomarkers such as pro-adrenomedullin, prohormone forms of atrial natriuretic peptide, cortisol, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein are being studied as predictors of mortality; however, further studies are required before these biomarkers are used for this function in clinical practice.[213]

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