最后审阅: 17 四月 2022
最后更新: 04 二月 2022

简介

疾病
描述

Commonly presents with dry, itchy skin. Typically there is erythema, scaling, vesicles, or lichenification in skin flexures. In infants, the extensor surfaces, cheeks, and forehead are preferentially affected.[1] 患者通常有其他特应性疾病的个人史或家族史,比如哮喘或变应性鼻炎病史。[1][2][3]

湿疹是一种慢性复发疾病,因而非常有必要对患者及家属进行教育,以便使其了解基础皮肤护理以及如何避免诱发因素。[4][5][6][7][Figure caption and citation for the preceding image starts]: 婴儿面部急性特应性皮炎Dr A. Heber的个人病例 [Citation ends].com.bmj.content.model.overview.Caption@10f8b225

刺激性接触性皮炎由直接接触毒性物质引发,可发生于无既往致敏史的任何人。 过敏性接触性皮炎是一种迟发型超敏反应,需要有既往致敏史。[8] 急性接触性皮炎患者普遍报告瘙痒、烧灼、红斑、肿胀和水泡,而慢性接触性皮炎患者则普遍报告瘙痒、烧灼、红斑或色素过度沉着、开裂和脱皮。

手掌、足底和/或手指侧缘的复发性多发水疱(1-2 mm),伴瘙痒。汗疱疹往往是与出汗不良性皮炎同义使用的一个术语,但其能够更好地用于描述手足上的较为急性和严重的大疱性出疹疾病。[9] 常见加重因素为刺激,如经常洗手、多汗和应激。 然而,根本病因未知。[Figure caption and citation for the preceding image starts]: 汗疱图片由 Spencer Holmes 医生提供 [Citation ends].com.bmj.content.model.overview.Caption@663f5357

A common inflammatory skin disorder that usually manifests as erythema and scaling of the scalp, nasolabial folds, and occasionally central face and anterior chest. It tends to worsen with stress.[10] The adult scalp form is commonly termed dandruff or pityriasis capitis. Variable course that seldom completely subsides. An infant form (cradle cap) usually resolves within the first few months of life.[Figure caption and citation for the preceding image starts]: 脂溢性皮炎,眉间可见脱屑和轻度红斑Dr Robert A. Schwartz 个人病例 [Citation ends].com.bmj.content.model.overview.Caption@23727268

Primarily an irritant contact dermatitis, nappy rash is inflammation of the skin in the area of the body covered by a nappy. It is most common in the first 2 years of life, but can occur in any person who routinely wears nappies. Recalcitrant nappy rash may signal secondary infection or underlying systemic or dermatological disorders, and requires further evaluation.

A common cutaneous disorder characterised by well-circumscribed erythematous, often hyperpigmented, patches and plaques of thickened lichenified skin. It most commonly occurs on the neck, ankles, scalp, pubis, vulva, scrotum, and extensor forearms as a result of chronic scratching and rubbing.[11]单发或多发慢性单纯性苔癣斑片或斑块可由其他基础皮肤病引起,例如特应性皮炎、变应性接触性皮炎、淤滞性皮炎、皮肤浅部真菌感染(癣和念珠菌病)和皮癣菌感染、硬化萎缩性苔藓、病毒疣、疥疮、虱病、节肢动物叮咬或皮肤肿瘤。[11][12]

LSC 是一种顽固性疾病,让患者和医生均感到棘手。[11][Figure caption and citation for the preceding image starts]: 特应性皮炎中的继发性慢性单纯性苔藓Dr Swick的个人病例 [Citation ends].com.bmj.content.model.overview.Caption@1727891e

An acute inflammatory reaction of the skin induced by over-exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Skin findings include erythema and oedema, with or without vesiculation, followed by desquamation. Symptoms include pain and/or pruritus. Acute sunburn is a self-limited condition and typically requires only supportive care. No current treatments can reverse UV-induced skin damage.[13] 然而,一级预防至关重要,因为紫外线辐射造成的细胞损伤是不可逆的,并且随时间推移,可能增加皮肤癌的患病风险。

The most subjective symptom in dermatology is itching, which may occur with or without visible skin lesions. A thorough history and complete physical examination are central to the evaluation of pruritus.[14] During clinical evaluation, it is important to identify a possible cause or disease responsible for itching, as well as determining the intensity and timeframe of the pruritus.

儿童皮疹很常见,其鉴别诊断范围广,轻者为自限性疾病(例如玫瑰疹),重者可危及生命(例如脑膜炎球菌病)。 在评估小儿皮疹时的初始,应考虑其形态、持续时间和分布。年龄、性别、家族史、药物、已知的变态反应和暴露也具有重要意义。

The dermatological manifestations of HIV are protean and often multiple in patients with HIV infection. HIV-specific dermatoses include HIV-related lipodystrophy, eosinophilic folliculitis, oral hairy leukoplakia, papular pruritic eruption of HIV, and HIV photodermatitis. Some skin diseases that appear in non-HIV-infected populations may have altered presentation in people with HIV. Seborrhoeic dermatitis occurs with strikingly increased prevalence in HIV infection.[15][16] Atopic dermatitis has a high prevalence in adult as well as paediatric populations with HIV.[17]

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