Primary prevention

Currently, there are no vaccines or preventative drugs licensed to protect against Marburg virus infection. One viral glycoprotein DNA vaccine demonstrated safety and immunogenicity to Marburg virus in phase 1b trials in Uganda and may be entering further clinical trials.[11] Clinical trials are ongoing for a number of other vaccine candidates.[12]

The mainstay of filovirus disease prevention is avoiding contact with infected animal vectors, contaminated objects, and body fluids of people with Marburg virus disease, including semen and breast milk from survivors, which may remain infectious for weeks or months after recovery.[13]

Secondary prevention

Marburg virus infection is a notifiable condition.

The mainstay of filovirus disease prevention is avoiding contact with infected animal vectors, contaminated objects, and body fluids of human Marburg virus disease cases, including semen and breast milk from survivors, which may remain infectious for weeks or months after recovery.[13] This includes avoidance of human remains after death from Marburg virus disease and cremation (rather than burial) of human remains.[69]

Extreme care should be taken when caring for filovirus patients and handling waste contaminated with blood or body fluids. It is recommended that only providers trained in the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) care for potentially infected patients, and that they be monitored by other trained staff to avoid breaches in protocol.[70] Soap and water hand-washing and alcohol hand gel can both disrupt the lipid membrane of filoviruses and interrupt transmission, though hand hygiene alone is not sufficient protection, and correct use of PPE is paramount with all suspect patients.

Once recovered from filovirus disease, a patient is likely immune to future infection by the same viral strain and is considered non-infectious to the general public. Currently no evidence exists to evaluate whether persistent filovirus in semen and vaginal fluid affects future birth outcomes among survivors.

There is one drug being studied as post-exposure prophylaxis for Marburg virus disease which shows some promise in non-human primates, AVI-7288.[71]

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