Epidemiology

The Marburg virus was the first filovirus to be discovered after simultaneous outbreaks in several European laboratories, including one in Marburg, Germany in 1967. The initial transmission to humans on this occasion was likely due to contact with infected African green monkeys. Subsequent human-to-human transmission spread the disease to 31 people in total. Approximately 590 human cases have been reported to date.[2]

A few sporadic cases have occurred and there have been two large epidemics, one in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1998 to 2000 (154 people) and one in Angola in 2004 to 2005 (252 people). Small outbreaks have also been reported in Uganda between 2007 and 2017.[2][5]

A case was reported in Guinea in August 2021. The patient died in the community a few days after presenting to a small health facility near his village. This was the first known case in Guinea and in West Africa.[6] No other cases were reported and the outbreak was declared over in September 2021.

Ghana reported their first-ever confirmed cases in 2022. Three cases were reported between 28 June and 5 August 2022, including two deaths. All three cases were from the same household. The outbreak was declared over on 16 September 2022.[7]

The Ravn virus was discovered in 1987 and has only been identified in three outbreaks: Kenya (1987), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1998-2000), and Uganda (2007).

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provides an up-to-date outbreak chronology and map of outbreak locations:

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