Epidemiology

Adults

  • In China, 87% of confirmed cases were aged 30 to 79 years and 3% were aged 80 years or older. Approximately 51% of patients were male.[4] 

  • In Italy, the median age and prevalence of comorbidities was higher compared with China.[5]

  • In the UK, the median age of patients was 73 years and males accounted for 60% of admissions in a prospective observational cohort study of more than 20,000 hospitalised patients.[6]

  • In the US, older patients (aged ≥65 years) accounted for 31% of all cases, 45% of hospitalisations, 53% of intensive care unit admissions, and 80% of deaths, with the highest incidence of severe outcomes in patients aged ≥85 years.[7]

Children

  • Children are less likely to be affected than adults, and account for up to 5% of confirmed cases depending on geographical location:[4][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]

    • China: 2.1% (median age 7 years)

    • Italy: 1.2% (median age 4 to 5 years; higher in males but not statistically significant)

    • Spain: 0.8% (median age 3 years)

    • UK: <5% (increased risk in males)

    • US: 1.7% (median age 9.6 years or 17.3 years in critically ill; higher in males but not statistically significant).

  • Most cases are from familial clusters, or children who have a history of close contact with an infected patient.[16] Unlike adults, children do not seem to be at higher risk for severe illness based on age or sex.[17]

Pregnant women

  • In the UK, the estimated incidence of admission to hospital with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pregnancy is 4.9 per 1000 maternities. Most women were in the second or third trimester. Of these patients, 41% were aged 35 years or older, 56% were from Black or other ethnic minority groups, 69% were overweight or obese, and 34% had pre-existing comorbidities.[18]

  • In the US, according to an analysis of 8200 infected pregnant women, Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black pregnant women appear to be disproportionately affected during pregnancy.[19]

Healthcare workers

  • Infection rates in healthcare workers vary between countries. In the UK, 14% of healthcare workers who were screened tested positive.[20] Around 10% of all COVID-19 infections in England between 26 April and 7 June were among patient-facing healthcare workers and social care workers.[21] In the Netherlands, 6% of healthcare workers who were tested were positive for SARS-CoV-2.[22] In China, infection rates in healthcare workers ranged from 1% to 4%.[23][24] 

  • The majority of healthcare workers with COVID-19 reported contact in the healthcare setting. In a study of over 9000 cases reported in healthcare workers in the US, 55% had contact only in a healthcare setting, 27% only in a household, 13% only in the community, and 5% in more than one setting.[25] 

Current case counts

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer