Last reviewed: 24 Aug 2023
Last updated: 10 May 2023



History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • maculopapular rash
  • fever
  • arthralgias
  • lymphadenopathy
  • incomplete immunization
More key diagnostic factors

Other diagnostic factors

  • malaise
  • coryza or pharyngitis
  • arthritis
  • conjunctivitis
Other diagnostic factors

Risk factors

  • incomplete immunization
  • exposure to infectious contact
  • international travel
More risk factors

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • serology
  • CBC
More 1st investigations to order

Investigations to consider

  • viral culture
  • reverse-transcriptase PCR
More investigations to consider

Treatment algorithm


pregnant: susceptible to and exposed to rubella

nonpregnant: symptomatic rubella



Elisabeth Adderson, MD
Elisabeth Adderson

Associate Member

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital

Associate Professor of Pediatrics

University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center




EA declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Elizabeth Barnett, MD, FAAP

Director of International Clinical Maxwell Finland Laboratory for Infectious Diseases

Boston Medical Center

Associate Professor of Pediatrics

Boston University School of Medicine




EB has received research grant support from Sandipasteen and Intercell and received an honorarium to attend a meeting sponsored by Novartis. She receives royalties from the sale of a book she edited.

Suzanne M. Garland, MBBS, MD, FRCPAm FAChSHM, FRANZCOG ad eundem

Director of Microbiological Research

Head of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Royal Women's Hospital

Senior Consultant of Microbiology

Royal Children's Hospital


Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

University of Melbourne




SMG has received advisory board fees and grant support from Commonwealth Serum Laboratories and GlaxoSmithKline, and lecture fees from Merck and GSK. SMG has received funding through her institution to conduct HPV vaccine studies for MSD and GSK.

Robert S. Duszak, OD, FAAO

Co-Director of Residency Program and Consulting Staff

Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Consulting Staff

Nemours Health Clinic & Mayfair Eye Associates

Adjunct Clinical Faculty

Pennsylvania College of Optometry

Salus University




RSD declares that he has no competing interests.

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