Evidence

Evidence tables

This table is a summary of the analysis reported in a Cochrane Clinical Answer that focuses on the above important clinical question.


Confidence in the evidence is moderate or low to moderate where GRADE has been performed and the intervention may be more effective/beneficial than the comparison for key outcomes.


Population: People with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation

Intervention: NIV plus usual care

Comparison: Usual care alone (combinations of pharmacological therapies)

OutcomeEffectiveness (BMJ rating)?Confidence in evidence (GRADE)?

Mortality (where reported, duration of follow‐up to intensive care unit [ICU] or hospital discharge)

Favours intervention

Moderate

Need for endotracheal intubation (where reported, duration of follow‐up 3 days to 30 days, ICU discharge, or hospital discharge)

Favours intervention

Moderate

Symptom scores (1 hour to 3 days)

No statistically significant difference

GRADE assessment not performed for this outcome

Duration of ICU stay

No statistically significant difference

GRADE assessment not performed for this outcome

Duration of hospital stay

Favours intervention

Moderate

Treatment intolerance

Favours comparison

GRADE assessment not performed for this outcome

Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2; 1 hour post‐intervention)

No statistically significant difference

GRADE assessment not performed for this outcome

Partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2; 1 hour post‐intervention)

Favours intervention

GRADE assessment not performed for this outcome

Complications of treatment: NIV-related

See note ᵃ

GRADE assessment not performed for this outcome

Complications of treatment: Non-NIV-related

Occurs more commonly with usual care alone compared with NIV plus usual care (favours intervention)

GRADE assessment not performed for this outcome

Note

ᵃ 30% of people in the NIV plus usual care group had complications specifically related to NIV (not experienced in the usual care alone groups). See Cochrane Clinical Answer (CCA) for more details.

This evidence table is related to the following section/s:

Cochrane Clinical Answers

  • How does longer corticosteroid treatment (>7 days) compare with shorter (≤7 days) in people with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
    Show me the answer
  • How does non-invasive ventilation compare with usual care in people with acute hypercapnic respiratory failure due to exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
    Show me the answer
  • What are the effects of hospital-at-home in adults with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
    Show me the answer
  • What are the effects of action plans with limited patient education only in reducing exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?
    Show me the answer

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