References

Key articles

Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 2020 report. 2020 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in over 16s: diagnosis and management. Jul 2019 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (acute exacerbation): antimicrobial prescribing. Dec 2018 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

British Thoracic Society. BTS guideline for oxygen use in healthcare and emergency settings. Jun 2017 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

Davidson AC, Banham S, Elliott M, et al. BTS/ICS guideline for the ventilatory management of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure in adults. Thorax. 2016 Apr;71 Suppl 2:ii1-35.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

Walters JA, Tan DJ, White CJ, et al. Different durations of corticosteroid therapy for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 19;(3):CD006897.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

Vollenweider DJ, Frei A, Steurer-Stey CA, et al. Antibiotics for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Oct 29;(10):CD010257.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

Puhan MA, Gimeno-Santos E, Cates CJ, et al. Pulmonary rehabilitation following exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Dec 8;(12):CD005305.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

Reference articles

1. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: 2020 report. 2020 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

2. Bastin AJ, Starling L, Ahmed R, et al. High prevalence of undiagnosed and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at first hospital admission with acute exacerbation. Chron Respir Dis. 2010;7(2):91-7.Abstract external link opens in a new window

3. Hanania NA, Marciniuk DD. A unified front against COPD: clinical practice guidelines from the American College of Physicians, the American College of Chest Physicians, the American Thoracic Society, and the European Respiratory Society. Chest. 2011 Sep;140(3):565-6.Abstract external link opens in a new window

4. Jemal A, Ward E, Hao Y. Trends in the leading causes of death in the United States, 1970-2002. JAMA. 2005 Sep 14;294(10):1255-9.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

5. Mannino DM, Buist AS. Global burden of COPD: risk factors, prevalence, and future trends. Lancet. 2007 Sep 1;370(9589):765-73.Abstract external link opens in a new window

6. Mannino DM, Doherty DE, Sonia Buist A. Global Initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification of lung disease and mortality: findings from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Respir Med. 2006 Jan;100(1):115-22.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

7. Buist AS, McBurnie MA, Vollmer WM, et al. International variation in the prevalence of COPD (the BOLD Study): a population-based prevalence study. Lancet. 2007 Sep 1;370(9589):741-50.Abstract external link opens in a new window

8. Menezes AM, Perez-Padilla R, Jardim JR, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in five Latin American cities (the PLATINO study): a prevalence study. Lancet. 2005 Nov 26;366(9500):1875-81.Abstract external link opens in a new window

9. Soriano JB, Maier WC, Egger P, et al. Recent trends in physician diagnosed COPD in women and men in the UK. Thorax. 2000 Sep;55(9):789-94.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

10. de Torres JP, Casanova C, Hernandez C, et al. Gender and COPD in patients attending a pulmonary clinic. Chest. 2005 Oct;128(4):2012-6.Abstract external link opens in a new window

11. Seemungal TA, Donaldson GC, Bhowmik A, et al. Time course and recovery of exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 May;161(5):1608-13.Abstract external link opens in a new window

12. Seemungal TA, Donaldson GC, Paul EA, et al. Effect of exacerbation on quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998 May;157(5 Pt 1):1418-22.Abstract external link opens in a new window

13. Rodriguez-Roisin R. COPD exacerbations. 5: management. Thorax. 2006 Jun;61(6):535-44.Abstract external link opens in a new window

14. O'Donnell DE, Parker CM. COPD exacerbations. 3: Pathophysiology. Thorax. 2006 Apr;61(4):354-61.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

15. Barberà JA, Roca J, Ferrer A, et al. Mechanisms of worsening gas exchange during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J. 1997 Jun;10(6):1285-91.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

16. Cote CG, Dordelly LJ, Celli BR. Impact of COPD exacerbations on patient-centered outcomes. Chest. 2007 Mar;131(3):696-704.Abstract external link opens in a new window

17. Spencer S, Jones PW; GLOBE Study Group. Time course of recovery of health status following an infective exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. Thorax. 2003 Jul;58(7):589-93.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

18. Xu W, Collet JP, Shapiro S, et al. Negative impacts of unreported COPD exacerbations on health-related quality of life at 1 year. Eur Respir J. 2010 May;35(5):1022-30.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

19. Rabe KF, Fabbri LM, Vogelmeier C, et al. Seasonal distribution of COPD exacerbations in the Prevention of Exacerbations with Tiotropium in COPD trial. Chest. 2013 Mar;143(3):711-9.Abstract external link opens in a new window

20. Sutherland ER, Cherniack RM. Management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jun 24;350(26):2689-97.Abstract external link opens in a new window

21. Ai-Ping C, Lee KH, Lim TK. In-hospital and 5-year mortality of patients treated in the ICU for acute exacerbation of COPD: a retrospective study. Chest. 2005 Aug;128(2):518-24.Abstract external link opens in a new window

22. Donaldson GC, Seemungal TA, Bhowmik A, et al. Relationship between exacerbation frequency and lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. 2002 Oct;57(10):847-52.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

23. Seneff MG, Wagner DP, Wagner RP, et al. Hospital and 1-year survival of patients admitted to intensive care units with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. JAMA. 1995 Dec 20;274(23):1852-7.Abstract external link opens in a new window

24. Soler-Cataluña JJ, Martínez-García MA, Román Sánchez P, et al. Severe acute exacerbations and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. 2005 Nov;60(11):925-31.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

25. Zvezdin B, Milutinov S, Kojicic M, et al. A postmortem analysis of major causes of early death in patients hospitalized with COPD exacerbation. Chest. 2009 Aug;136(2):376-80.Abstract external link opens in a new window

26. Donaldson GC, Hurst JR, Smith CJ, et al. Increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke following exacerbation of COPD. Chest. 2010 May;137(5):1091-7.Abstract external link opens in a new window

27. Lundback B, Lindberg A, Lindstrom M, et al. Not 15 but 50% of smokers develop COPD? Report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden Studies. Respir Med. 2003 Feb;97(2):115-22.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

28. Sapey E, Stockley RA. COPD exacerbations. 2: aetiology. Thorax. 2006 Mar;61(3):250-8.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

29. Hogg JC, Chu F, Utokaparch S, et al. The nature of small-airway obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 2004 Jun 24;350(26):2645-53.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

30. Anzueto A. Primary care management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to reduce exacerbations and their consequences. Am J Med Sci. 2010 Oct;340(4):309-18.Abstract external link opens in a new window

31. Woodhead M, Blasi F, Ewig S, et al. Guidelines for the management of adult lower respiratory tract infections - full version. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011 Nov;17 Suppl 6:E1-59.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

32. Lieberman D, Lieberman D, Ben-Yaakov M, et al. Infectious etiologies in acute exacerbation of COPD. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2001 Jul;40(3):95-102.Abstract external link opens in a new window

33. Greenberg SB, Allen M, Wilson J, et al. Respiratory viral infections in adults with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Jul;162(1):167-73.Abstract external link opens in a new window

34. Beckham JD, Cadena A, Lin J, et al. Respiratory viral infections in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Infect. 2005 May;50(4):322-30.Abstract external link opens in a new window

35. Martinello RA, Esper F, Weibel C, et al. Human metapneumovirus and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Infect. 2006 Oct;53(4):248-54.Abstract external link opens in a new window

36. Dennis RJ, Maldonado D, Norman S, et al. Woodsmoke exposure and risk for obstructive airways disease among women. Chest. 1996 Jan;109(1):115-9.Abstract external link opens in a new window

37. Sunyer J, Saez M, Murillo C, et al. Air pollution and emergency room admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a 5-year study. Am J Epidemiol. 1993 Apr 1;137(7):701-5.Abstract external link opens in a new window

38. Jones JG, Minty BD, Lawler P, et al. Increased alveolar epithelial permeability in cigarette smokers. Lancet. 1980 Jan 12;1(8159):66-8.Abstract external link opens in a new window

39. Sethi S, Murphy TF. Bacterial infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 2000: a state-of-the-art review. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2001 Apr;14(2):336-63.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

40. Barnes PJ. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 2000 Jul 27;343(4):269-80.Abstract external link opens in a new window

41. Stockley RA. Progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: impact of inflammation, comorbidities and therapeutic intervention. Curr Med Res Opin. 2009 May;25(5):1235-45.Abstract external link opens in a new window

42. Sethi S, Murphy TF. Infection in the pathogenesis and course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 2008 Nov 27;359(22):2355-65.Abstract external link opens in a new window

43. Barnes PJ. Mechanisms in COPD: differences from asthma. Chest. 2000 Feb;117(2 Suppl):10S-4S.Abstract external link opens in a new window

44. Hogg JC. Pathophysiology of airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lancet. 2004 Aug 21-27;364(9435):709-21.Abstract external link opens in a new window

45. Lougheed DM, Webb KA, O'Donnell DE. Breathlessness during induced lung hyperinflation in asthma: the role of the inspiratory threshold load. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995 Sep;152(3):911-20.Abstract external link opens in a new window

46. Pauwels RA, Buist AS, Calverley PM, et al. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NHLBI/WHO Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Workshop summary. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Apr;163(5):1256-76.Abstract external link opens in a new window

47. Tashkin DP, Celli B, Decramer M, et al. Bronchodilator responsiveness in patients with COPD. Eur Respir J. 2008 Apr;31(4):742-50.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

48. Belman MJ, Botnick WC, Shin JW. Inhaled bronchodilators reduce dynamic hyperinflation during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996 Mar;153(3):967-75.Abstract external link opens in a new window

49. Celli B, ZuWallack R, Wang S, et al. Improvement in resting inspiratory capacity and hyperinflation with tiotropium in COPD patients with increased static lung volumes. Chest. 2003 Nov;124(5):1743-8.Abstract external link opens in a new window

50. Papi A, Bellettato CM, Braccioni F, et al. Infections and airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severe exacerbations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 May 15;173(10):1114-21.Abstract external link opens in a new window

51. Wedzicha JA, Seemungal TA. COPD exacerbations: defining their cause and prevention. Lancet. 2007 Sep 1;370(9589):786-96.Abstract external link opens in a new window

52. Hurst JR, Wedzicha JA. The biology of a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. Clin Chest Med. 2007 Sep;28(3):525-36.Abstract external link opens in a new window

53. Giacomini M, DeJean D, Simeonov D, et al. Experiences of living and dying with COPD: a systematic review and synthesis of the qualitative empirical literature. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser. 2012;12(13):1-47.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

54. Burge S, Wedzicha JA. COPD exacerbations: definitions and classifications. Eur Respir J Suppl. 2003 Jun;41:46s-53s.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

55. Hurst JR, Vestbo J, Anzueto A, et al. Susceptibility to exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 2010 Sep 16;363(12):1128-38.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

56. Niewoehner DE, Lokhnygina Y, Rice K, et al. Risk indexes for exacerbations and hospitalizations due to COPD. Chest. 2007 Jan;131(1):20-8.Abstract external link opens in a new window

57. Foreman MG, DeMeo DL, Hersh CP, et al. Clinical determinants of exacerbations in severe, early-onset COPD. Eur Respir J. 2007 Dec;30(6):1124-30.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

58. Soler N, Agusti C, Angrill J, et al. Bronchoscopic validation of the significance of sputum purulence in severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. 2007 Jan;62(1):29-35.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

59. Wilkinson TM, Hurst JR, Perera WR, et al. Effect of interactions between lower airway bacterial and rhinoviral infection in exacerbations of COPD. Chest. 2006 Feb;129(2):317-24.Abstract external link opens in a new window

60. Sethi S, Sethi R, Eschberger K, et al. Airway bacterial concentrations and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Aug 15;176(4):356-61.Abstract external link opens in a new window

61. Caramori G, Adcock IM, Papi A. Clinical definition of COPD exacerbations and classification of their severity. South Med J. 2009 Mar;102(3):277-82.Abstract external link opens in a new window

62. Sethi S, Evans N, Grant BJ, et al. New strains of bacteria and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med. 2002 Aug 15;347(7):465-71.Abstract external link opens in a new window

63. Anthonisen NR, Manfreda J, Warren CP, et al. Antibiotic therapy in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ann Intern Med. 1987 Feb;106(2):196-204.Abstract external link opens in a new window

64. Puhan MA, Vollenweider D, Latshang T, et al. Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: when are antibiotics indicated? A systematic review. Respir Res. 2007 Apr 4;8:30.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

65. Terada K, Muro S, Sato S, et al. Impact of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms on COPD exacerbation. Thorax. 2008 Nov;63(11):951-5.Abstract external link opens in a new window

66. Terada K, Muro S, Ohara T, et al. Abnormal swallowing reflex and COPD exacerbations. Chest. 2010 Feb;137(2):326-32.Abstract external link opens in a new window

67. Seemungal TA, Harper-Owen R, Bhowmik A, et al. Detection of rhinovirus in induced sputum at exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J. 2000 Oct;16(4):677-83.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

68. Falsey AR, Formica MA, Hennessey PA, et al. Detection of respiratory syncytial virus in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Mar 15;173(6):639-43.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

69. Hurst JR, Donaldson GC, Wilkinson TM, et al. Epidemiological relationships between the common cold and exacerbation frequency in COPD. Eur Respir J. 2005 Nov;26(5):846-52.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

70. Hogg JC. Role of latent viral infections in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001 Nov 15;164(10 Pt 2):S71-5.Abstract external link opens in a new window

71. Anderson HR, Spix C, Medina S, et al. Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities: results from the APHEA project. Eur Respir J. 1997 May;10(5):1064-71.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

72. Yang CY, Chen CC, Chen CY, et al. Air pollution and hospital admissions for asthma in a subtropical city: Taipei, Taiwan. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007 Jan 15;70(2):111-7.Abstract external link opens in a new window

73. Pope CA 3rd, Kanner RE. Acute effects of PM10 pollution on pulmonary function of smokers with mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1993 Jun;147(6 Pt 1):1336-40.Abstract external link opens in a new window

74. Faustini A, Stafoggia M, Colais P, et al. Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes. Eur Respir J. 2013 Aug;42(2):304-13.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

75. Diederen BM, van der Valk PD, Kluytmans JA, et al. The role of atypical respiratory pathogens in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J. 2007 Aug;30(2):240-4.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

76. Blasi F, Damato S, Cosentini R, et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae and chronic bronchitis: association with severity and bacterial clearance following treatment. Thorax. 2002 Aug;57(8):672-6.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

77. Seemungal TA, Wedzicha JA, MacCallum PK, et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae and COPD exacerbation. Thorax. 2002 Dec;57(12):1087-8.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

78. Donaldson GC, Seemungal T, Jeffries DJ, et al. Effect of temperature on lung function and symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J. 1999 Apr;13(4):844-9.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

79. Chen CZ, Ou CY, Yu CH, et al. Comparison of global initiative for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 2013 classification and body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exacerbations index in predicting mortality and exacerbations in elderly adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2015 Feb;63(2):244-50.Abstract external link opens in a new window

80. Criner GJ, Bourbeau J, Diekemper RL, et al. Prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD: American College of Chest Physicians and Canadian Thoracic Society Guideline. Chest. 2015 Apr;147(4):894-942.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

81. Au DH, Bryson CL, Chien JW, et al. The effects of smoking cessation on the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. J Gen Intern Med. 2009 Apr;24(4):457-63.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

82. Walters JA, Tang JN, Poole P, et al. Pneumococcal vaccines for preventing pneumonia in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jan 24;(1):CD001390.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

83. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in over 16s: diagnosis and management. Jul 2019 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

84. Royal College of Physicians. National Early Warning Score (NEWS) 2. Standardising the assessment of acute-illness severity in the NHS. Dec 2017 [internet publication]. Full text external link opens in a new window

85. Royal College of Physicians. National Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Audit Programme (NACAP): COPD clinical audit 2017/18 (people with COPD exacerbations discharged from acute hospitals in England and Wales between September 2017 and 2018) - clinical audit report. May 2019 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

86. Steer J, Norman EM, Afolabi OA, et al. Dyspnoea severity and pneumonia as predictors of in-hospital mortality and early readmission in acute exacerbations of COPD. Thorax. 2011 Sep 6;67(2):117-21.Abstract external link opens in a new window

87. White AJ, Gompertz S, Stockley RA. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease . 6: The aetiology of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. 2003 Jan;58(1):73-80.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

88. Stanley D, Tunnicliffe W. Management of life-threatening asthma in adults. Cont Ed Anaesth Crit Care & Pain. 2008 June;8(3):95-9.Full text external link opens in a new window

89. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (acute exacerbation): antimicrobial prescribing. Dec 2018 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

90. British Thoracic Society. BTS guideline for oxygen use in healthcare and emergency settings. Jun 2017 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

91. Graham CA, Parke TR. Critical care in the emergency department: shock and circulatory support. Emerg Med J. 2005 Jan;22(1):17-21.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

92. Echevarria C, Steer J, Heslop-Marshall K, et al. Validation of the DECAF score to predict hospital mortality in acute exacerbations of COPD. Thorax. 2016 Feb;71(2):133-40.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

93. Davidson AC, Banham S, Elliott M, et al. BTS/ICS guideline for the ventilatory management of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure in adults. Thorax. 2016 Apr;71 Suppl 2:ii1-35.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

94. Steer J, Gibson GJ, Bourke SC. Predicting outcomes following hospitalization for acute exacerbations of COPD. QJM. 2010 Nov;103(11):817-29.Abstract external link opens in a new window

95. Davies M, Allen M, Bentley A, et al. British Thoracic Society quality standards for acute non-invasive ventilation in adults. BMJ Open Respir Res. 2018 Apr 5;5(1):e000283.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

96. Lim BL, Kelly AM. A meta-analysis on the utility of peripheral venous blood gas analyses in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the emergency department. Eur J Emerg Med. 2010 Oct;17(5):246-8.Abstract external link opens in a new window

97. Huiart L, Ernst P, Suissa S. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in COPD. Chest. 2005 Oct;128(4):2640-6.Abstract external link opens in a new window

98. Brekke PH, Omland T, Smith P, et al. Underdiagnosis of myocardial infarction in COPD - Cardiac Infarction Injury Score (CIIS) in patients hospitalised for COPD exacerbation. Respir Med. 2008 Sep;102(9):1243-7.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

99. Strambu I, Ionita D, Stoicescu I, et al. Spirometry quality in patients with COPD exacerbation, related to the "frequent exacerbator" phenotype. Eur Respir J. 2013 Sept;42 (Suppl 57):1792.Full text external link opens in a new window

100. Schuetz P, Wirz Y, Sager R, et al. Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Oct 12;(10):CD007498.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

101. Huang DT, Yealy DM, Filbin MR, et al. Procalcitonin-guided use of antibiotics for lower respiratory tract infection. N Engl J Med. 2018 Jul 19;379(3):236-49.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

102. Pauwels R, Calverley P, Buist AS, et al. COPD exacerbations: the importance of a standard definition. Respir Med. 2004 Feb;98(2):99-107.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

103. Bestall JC, Paul EA, Garrod R, et al. Usefulness of the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnoea scale as a measure of disability in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax. 1999 Jul;54(7):581-6.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

104. Gelow JM, Fang JC. Update in the approach to and management of heart failure. South Med J. 2006 Dec;99(12):1346-55.Abstract external link opens in a new window

105. Doust J, Lehman R, Glasziou P. The role of BNP testing in heart failure. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Dec 1;74(11):1893-8.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

106. Mueller C, Scholer A, Laule-Kilian K, et al. Use of B-type natriuretic peptide in the evaluation and management of acute dyspnea. N Engl J Med. 2004 Feb 12;350(7):647-54.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

107. Dewan NA. COPD exacerbations: to x-ray or not to x-ray. Chest. 2014 Apr;145(4):779-86.Abstract external link opens in a new window

108. Emerman CL, Cydulka RK. Evaluation of high-yield criteria for chest radiography in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ann Emerg Med. 1993 Apr;22(4):680-4.Abstract external link opens in a new window

109. Sherman S, Skoney JA, Ravikrishnan KP. Routine chest radiographs in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: diagnostic value. Arch Intern Med. 1989 Nov;149(11):2493-6.Abstract external link opens in a new window

110. Lieberman D, Lieberman D, Gelfer Y, et al. Pneumonic vs nonpneumonic acute exacerbations of COPD. Chest. 2002 Oct;122(4):1264-70.Abstract external link opens in a new window

111. Slater A, Goodwin M, Anderson KE, et al. COPD can mimic the appearance of pneumothorax on thoracic ultrasound. Chest. 2006 Mar;129(3):545-50.Abstract external link opens in a new window

112. Tillie-Leblond I, Marquette CH, Perez T, et al. Pulmonary embolism in patients with unexplained exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: prevalence and risk factors. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Mar 21;144(6):390-6.Abstract external link opens in a new window

113. Robinson TD, Freiberg DB, Regnis JA, et al. The role of hypoventilation and ventilation-perfusion redistribution in oxygen-induced hypercapnia during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 May;161(5):1524-9.Abstract external link opens in a new window

114. Santos C, Ferrer M, Roca J, et al. Pulmonary gas exchange response to oxygen breathing in acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Jan;161(1):26-31.Abstract external link opens in a new window

115. Hanson CW, 3rd, Marshall BE, Frasch HF, et al. Causes of hypercarbia with oxygen therapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Crit Care Med. 1996 Jan;24(1):23-8.Abstract external link opens in a new window

116. Celli BR, MacNee W, Agusti A, et al; ATS/ERS Task Force. Standards for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paper. Eur Respir J. 2004 Jun;23(6):932-46.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

117. Austin MA, Wills KE, Blizzard L, et al. Effect of high flow oxygen on mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in prehospital setting: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2010 Oct 18;341:c5462.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

118. Holland A, Smith F, Penny K, et al. Metered dose inhalers versus nebulizers for aerosol bronchodilator delivery for adult patients receiving mechanical ventilation in critical care units. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jun 6;(6):CD008863.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

119. Walters JA, Tan DJ, White CJ, et al. Different durations of corticosteroid therapy for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 19;(3):CD006897.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

120. European Medicines Agency. Quinolone- and fluoroquinolone-containing medicinal products. Mar 2019 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

121. Bafadhel M, McKenna S, Terry S, et al. Blood eosinophils to direct corticosteroid treatment of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012 Jul 1;186(1):48-55.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

122. Barr RG, Rowe BH, Camargo CA, Jr. Methylxanthines for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ. 2003 Sep 20;327(7416):643.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

123. Devereux G, Cotton S, Fielding S, et al. Effect of theophylline as adjunct to inhaled corticosteroids on exacerbations in patients with COPD: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2018 Oct 16;320(15):1548-59.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

124. Thomas C, Lumb AB. Physiology of haemoglobin. Cont Ed Anaesth Crit Care Pain. 2012 Oct;12(5):251-6.

125. Osadnik CR, Tee VS, Carson-Chahhoud KV, et al. Non-invasive ventilation for the management of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure due to exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jul 13;(7):CD004104.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

126. Perkins GD, Olasveengen TM, Maconochie I, et al. European Resuscitation Council guidelines for resuscitation: 2017 update. Resuscitation. 2018 Feb;123:43-50.Abstract external link opens in a new window

127. Colquhoun MC, Handley AJ, Evans TR, eds. ABC of resuscitation. 5th ed. Wiley-Blackwell; 2004.

128. Soar J, Nolan JP, Böttiger BW, et al. European Resuscitation Council guidelines for resuscitation 2015: Section 3. Adult advanced life support. Resuscitation. 2015;95:100-147.Abstract external link opens in a new window

129. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics: new restrictions and precautions for use due to very rare reports of disabling and potentially long-lasting or irreversible side effects. Mar 2019 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

130. Vollenweider DJ, Frei A, Steurer-Stey CA, et al. Antibiotics for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Oct 29;(10):CD010257.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

131. Siempos II, Dimopoulos G, Korbila IP, et al. Macrolides, quinolones and amoxicillin/clavulanate for chronic bronchitis: a meta-analysis. Eur Respir J. 2007 Jun;29(6):1127-37.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

132. Korbila IP, Manta KG, Siempos II, et al. Penicillins vs trimethoprim-based regimens for acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Can Fam Physician. 2009 Jan;55(1):60-7.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

133. Rawal G, Yadav S. Nutrition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review. J Transl Int Med. 2015 Oct-Dec;3(4):151-4.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

134. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Stop smoking interventions and services. Mar 2018 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

135. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Smoking: harm reduction. Jul 2013 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

136. Echevarria C, Gray J, Hartley T, et al. Home treatment of COPD exacerbation selected by DECAF score: a non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation. Thorax. 2018 Aug;73(8):713-22.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

137. Jeppesen E, Brurberg KG, Vist GE, et al. Hospital at home for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 May 16;(5):CD003573.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

138. Puhan MA, Gimeno-Santos E, Cates CJ, et al. Pulmonary rehabilitation following exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Dec 8;(12):CD005305.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

139. Spruit MA, Singh SJ, Garvey C, et al. An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: key concepts and advances in pulmonary rehabilitation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013 Oct 15;188(8):e13-64.Abstract external link opens in a new window

140. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. Management of hyperglycaemia and steroid (glucocorticosteroid) therapy. October 2014 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

141. Judd LL, Schettler PJ, Brown ES, et al. Adverse consequences of glucocorticoid medication: psychological, cognitive, and behavioral effects. Am J Psychiatry. 2014 Oct;171(10):1045-51Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

142. Kenna HA, Poon AW, de los Angeles CP, et al. Psychiatric complications of treatment with corticosteroids: review with case report. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011 Oct;65(6):549-60Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

143. Warrington TP, Bostwick JM. Psychiatric adverse effects of corticosteroids. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006 Oct;81(10):1361-7Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

144. Fardet L, Nazareth I, Whitaker HJ, et al. Severe neuropsychiatric outcomes following discontinuation of long-term glucocorticoid therapy: a cohort study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013 Apr;74(4):e281-6Abstract external link opens in a new window

145. Fritz Z, Slowther AM, Perkins GD. Resuscitation policy should focus on the patient, not the decision. BMJ. 2017 Feb 28;356:j813Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

146. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Decision making and mental capacity. October 2018 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

147. Department of Health. Mental Capacity Act 2005 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

148. Social Care Institute for Excellence. Independent mental capacity advocate (IMCA). 2011 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

149. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Intravenous fluid therapy in adults in hospital. Clinical guideline CG174. May 2017 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

150. Verbrugge FH, Grieten L, Mullens W. Management of the cardiorenal syndrome in decompensated heart failure. Cardiorenal Med. 2014 Dec;4(3-4):176-88Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

151. Ponikowski P, Voors AA, Anker SD, et al. 2016 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J. 2016 May 20;37(27):2129-200Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

152. Freeman R, Wieling W, Axelrod FB, et al. Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, neurally mediated syncope and the postural tachycardia syndrome. Clin Auton Res. 2011 Apr;21(2):69-72Abstract external link opens in a new window

153. Chowdhury TA, Cheston H, Claydon A. Managing adults with diabetes in hospital during an acute illness. BMJ. 2017 Jun 22;357:j2551Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

154. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. The use of variable rate intravenous insulin infusion (VRIII) in medical inpatients. October 2014 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

155. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. Management of adults with diabetes undergoing surgery and elective procedures: Improving standards. Revised March 2016 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

156. British National Formulary 77. Metformin hydrochloride. London: BMJ Group, RCPCH Publications Ltd and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. July 2020Full text external link opens in a new window

157. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. SGLT2 inhibitors: monitor ketones in blood during treatment interruption for surgical procedures or acute serious medical illness. March 2020 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

158. Peters AL, Buschur EO, Buse JB, et al. Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis: a potential complication of treatment with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition. Diabetes Care. 2015 Jun 15;38(9):1687-93Abstract external link opens in a new window

159. Joint British Diabetes Societies Inpatient Care Group. The management of diabetic ketoacidosis in adults. 2nd ed. September 2013 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

160. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Acute kidney injury: prevention, detection and management. December 2019 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

161. Hsu CY, Ordoñez JD, Chertow GM, et al. The risk of acute renal failure in patients with chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2008 Apr 2;74(1):101-7Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

162. Grau AJ, Urbanek C, Palm F. Common infections and the risk of stroke. Nat Rev Neurol. 2010 Nov 9;6(12):681-94Abstract external link opens in a new window

163. Eigenbrodt ML, Rose KM, Couper DJ, et al. Orthostatic hypotension as a risk factor for stroke: the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study, 1987-1996. Stroke. 2000 Oct;31(10):2307-13Abstract external link opens in a new window

164. Winstein CJ, Stein J, Arena R, et al. Guidelines for adult stroke rehabilitation and recovery: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2016 May 4;47(6):e98-e169Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

165. Pendlebury ST, Klaus SP, Mather M, et al. Routine cognitive screening in older patients admitted to acute medicine: abbreviated mental test score (AMTS) and subjective memory complaint versus Montreal Cognitive Assessment and IQCODE. Age Ageing. 2015 Oct 13;44(6):1000-5Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

166. Hodkinson HM. Evaluation of a mental test score for assessment of mental impairment in the elderly. Age Ageing. 1972 Nov;1(4):233-8Abstract external link opens in a new window

167. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Delirium: diagnosis, prevention and management. (CG103). March 2019 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

168. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Dementia: assessment, management and support for people living with dementia and their carers. June 2018 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

169. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Risk reduction and management of delirium. March 2019 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

170. Nova Scotia Health Authority. This is not my Mom. 2012 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

171. Inouye SK, Schlesinger MJ, Lydon TJ. Delirium: a symptom of how hospital care is failing older persons and a window to improve quality of hospital care. Am J Med. 1999 May;106(5):565-73Abstract external link opens in a new window

172. Bellelli G, Morandi A, Davis DH, et al. Validation of the 4AT, a new instrument for rapid delirium screening: a study in 234 hospitalised older people. Age Ageing. 2014 Mar 2;43(4):496-502Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

173. MacLullich AM, Shenkin SD, Goodacre S, et al. The 4 'A's test for detecting delirium in acute medical patients: a diagnostic accuracy study. Health Technol Assess. 2019 Aug;23(40):1-194Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

174. White S, Griffiths R, Baxter M, et al. Guidelines for the peri-operative care of people with dementia: guidelines from the Association of Anaesthetists. Anaesthesia. 2019 Jan 11;74(3):357-72Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

175. Siddiqi N, Harrison JK, Clegg A, et al. Interventions for preventing delirium in hospitalised non-ICU patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Mar 11;3:CD005563Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

176. Martinez F, Tobar C, Hill N. Preventing delirium: should non-pharmacological, multicomponent interventions be used? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Age Ageing. 2014 Nov 25;44(2):196-204Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

177. Public Health England. Urinary tract infection: diagnostic tools for primary care. September 2019 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

178. Pryor C, Clarke A. Nursing care for people with delirium superimposed on dementia. Nurs Older People. 2017 Mar 31;29(3):18-21Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

179. Ma H, Huang Y, Cong Z, et al. The efficacy and safety of atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of dementia: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014;42(3):915-37Abstract external link opens in a new window

180. Huybrechts KF, Gerhard T, Crystal S, et al. Differential risk of death in older residents in nursing homes prescribed specific antipsychotic drugs: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2012 Feb 23;344:e977Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

181. Van Leeuwen E, Petrovic M, van Driel ML, et al. Withdrawal versus continuation of long-term antipsychotic drug use for behavioural and psychological symptoms in older people with dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 30;3:CD007726Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

182. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med. 2001 Sep;16(9):606-13Abstract external link opens in a new window

183. Boden JM, Fergusson DM. Alcohol and depression. Addiction. 2011 Mar 7;106(5):906-14Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

184. American Diabetes Association. 15. Diabetes care in the hospital: standards of medical care in diabetes - 2020. Diabetes Care. 2020 Jan;43(suppl 1):S193-S202Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

185. NHS Digital. National Diabetes Inpatient Audit (NaDIA) - 2017. March 2018 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

186. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. Self-management of diabetes in hospital. March 2012 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

187. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Type 1 diabetes in adults: diagnosis and management. July 2016 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

188. Moghissi ES, Korytkowski MT, DiNardo M, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Diabetes Association consensus statement on inpatient glycemic control. Endocr Pract. 2009 May-Jun;15(4):353-69Abstract external link opens in a new window

189. van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2001 Nov 8;345(19):1359-67Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

190. NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators; Finfer S, Chittock DR, Su SY, et al. Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2009 Mar 26;360(13):1283-97.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

191. Marik PE, Preiser JC. Toward understanding tight glycemic control in the ICU: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Chest. 2009 Dec 16;137(3):544-51Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

192. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. The management of the hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) in adults with diabetes. August 2012 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

193. Rehman A, Setter SM, Vue MH. Drug-induced glucose alterations part 2: drug-Induced hyperglycemia. Diabetes Spect. 2011 Nov;24(4):234-8Full text external link opens in a new window

194. Joint British Diabetes Societies for inpatient care. The hospital management of hypoglycaemia in adults with diabetes mellitus. 4th ed. January 2020 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

195. Rowles S, Kilvert A, Sinclair A; on behalf of the Association of British Clinical Diabetologists (ABCD). ABCD position statement on diabetes and end of life care. Pract Diab Int, 2011;28:26-7Full text external link opens in a new window

196. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Diabetic foot problems: prevention and management. October 2019 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

197. Rayman G, Vas PR, Baker N, et al. The Ipswich Touch Test: a simple and novel method to identify inpatients with diabetes at risk of foot ulceration. Diabetes Care. 2011 May 18;34(7):1517-8Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

198. Cleare A, Pariante CM, Young AH, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants: A revision of the 2008 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines. J Psychopharmacol. 2015 May 12;29(5):459-525Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

199. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Depression in adults with a chronic physical health problem: recognition and management. October 2009 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

200. Cafarella PA, Effing TW, Usmani ZA, et al. Treatments for anxiety and depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a literature review. Respirology. 2012 May;17(4):627-38Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

201. Pollok J, van Agteren JE, Carson-Chahhoud KV. Pharmacological interventions for the treatment of depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Dec 19;12:CD012346.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

202. van Manen JG, Bindels PJ, Dekker FW, et al. Risk of depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its determinants. Thorax. 2002 May;57(5):412-6Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

203. Atlantis E, Fahey P, Cochrane B, et al. Bidirectional associations between clinically relevant depression or anxiety and COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Chest. 2013 Sep;144(3):766-77Abstract external link opens in a new window

204. Goodwin RD, Chuang S, Simuro N, et al. Association between lung function and mental health problems among adults in the United States: findings from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol. 2006 Dec 7;165(4):383-8Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

205. Taylor DM, Barnes TRE, Young AH. The Maudsley prescribing guidelines in psychiatry. 13th edition. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; 2018

206. Flowers L. Nicotine replacement therapy. Am J Psychiatry Resid. 2016 Jun;11(6)4-7Full text external link opens in a new window

207. Desai HD, Seabolt J, Jann MW. Smoking in patients receiving psychotropic medications: a pharmacokinetic perspective. CNS Drugs. 2001;15(6):469-94

208. Oliveira P, Ribeiro J, Donato H, Madeira N. Smoking and antidepressants pharmacokinetics: a systematic review. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2017;16:17Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

209. National Centre for smoking cessation and training. Smoking cessation and mental health. 2014 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

210. Boyer EW, Shannon M. The serotonin syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 17;352(11):1112-20Abstract external link opens in a new window

211. Pollok J, van Agteren JE, Esterman AJ, et al. Psychological therapies for the treatment of depression in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Mar 6;3:CD012347Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

212. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Liaison psychiatry. In: Emergency acute medical care in over 16s: service delivery and organisation. March 2018 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

213. National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death (NCEPOD). Treat as one. Bridging the gap between mental and physical healthcare in general hospitals. 2017 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

214. DiMatteo MR, Lepper HS, Croghan TW. Depression is a risk factor for noncompliance with medical treatment: meta-analysis of the effects of anxiety and depression on patient adherence. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Jul 24;160(14):2101-7Abstract external link opens in a new window

215. Clarke DM, Currie KC. Depression, anxiety and their relationship with chronic diseases: a review of the epidemiology, risk and treatment evidence. Med J Aust. 2009 Apr 6;190(7 suppl):S54-60Abstract external link opens in a new window

216. Prina AM, Cosco TD, Dening T, et al. The association between depressive symptoms in the community, non-psychiatric hospital admission and hospital outcomes: a systematic review. J Psychosom Res. 2014 Nov 8;78(1):25-33Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

217. World Health Organization. Excess mortality in persons with severe mental disorders. 2016 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

218. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Smoking: acute, maternity and mental health services. Public health guideline [PH48]. November 2013 [internet publication]Full text external link opens in a new window

219. Hoogendoorn M, Hoogenveen RT, Rutten-van Mölken MP, et al. Case fatality of COPD exacerbations: a meta-analysis and statistical modelling approach. Eur Respir J. 2011;37:508-515.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

220. Breen D, Churches T, Hawker F, et al. Acute respiratory failure secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated in the intensive care unit: a long term follow up study. Thorax. 2002 Jan;57(1):29-33.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

221. Dewan NA, Rafique S, Kanwar B, et al. Acute exacerbation of COPD: factors associated with poor treatment outcome. Chest. 2000 Mar;117(3):662-71.Abstract external link opens in a new window

222. Gunen H, Hacievliyagil SS, Kosar F, et al. Factors affecting survival of hospitalised patients with COPD. Eur Respir J. 2005 Aug;26(2):234-41.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

223. Garcia-Aymerich J, Farrero E, Felez MA, et al. Risk factors of readmission to hospital for a COPD exacerbation: a prospective study. Thorax. 2003 Feb;58(2):100-5.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

224. Garcia-Aymerich J, Lange P, Benet M, et al. Regular physical activity reduces hospital admission and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population based cohort study. Thorax. 2006 Sep;61(9):772-8.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

225. Piquet J, Chavaillon JM, David P, et al. High-risk patients following hospitalisation for an acute exacerbation of COPD. Eur Respir J. 2013 Oct;42(4):946-55.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

226. Singanayagam A, Schembri S, Chalmers JD. Predictors of mortality in hospitalized adults with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2013 Apr;10(2):81-9.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

227. Almagro P, Soriano JB, Cabrera FJ, et al. Short- and medium-term prognosis in patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbation: the CODEX index. Chest. 2014 May;145(5):972-80.Abstract external link opens in a new window

228. Jones PW, Lamarca R, Chuecos F, et al. Characterisation and impact of reported and unreported exacerbations: results from ATTAIN. Eur Respir J. 2014 Nov;44(5):1156-65.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

229. Joint British Diabetes Societies for Inpatient Care. Management of hyperglycaemia and steroid (glucocorticoid) therapy. Oct 2014 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

230. Gross N, Levin D. Primary care of the patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-part 2: pharmacologic treatment across all stages of disease. Am J Med. 2008 Jul;121(7 Suppl):S13-24.Abstract external link opens in a new window

231. Pitta F, Troosters T, Probst VS, et al. Physical activity and hospitalization for exacerbation of COPD. Chest. 2006 Mar;129(3):536-44.Abstract external link opens in a new window

232. Garcia-Aymerich J, Lange P, Benet M, et al. Regular physical activity modifies smoking-related lung function decline and reduces risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based cohort study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Mar 1;175(5):458-63.Abstract external link opens in a new window

233. Sharma G, Kuo YF, Freeman JL, et al. Outpatient follow-up visit and 30-day emergency department visit and readmission in patients hospitalized for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Arch Intern Med. 2010 Oct 11;170(18):1664-70.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

234. Howcroft M, Walters EH, Wood-Baker R, Walters JA. Action plans with brief patient education for exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Dec 19;(12):CD005074.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

235. McLean S, Nurmatov U, Liu JL, et al. Telehealthcare for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jul 6;(7):CD007718.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

236. Vitacca M, Bianchi L, Guerra A, et al. Tele-assistance in chronic respiratory failure patients: a randomised clinical trial. Eur Respir J. 2009 Feb;33(2):411-8.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

237. OHTAC COPD Collaborative. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) evidentiary framework. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser. 2012;12(2):1-97.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

238. Pinnock H, Hanley J, McCloughan L, et al. Effectiveness of telemonitoring integrated into existing clinical services on hospital admission for exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: researcher blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2013 Oct 17;347:f6070.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer