冻伤

最后审阅: 7 九月 2022
最后更新: 14 十月 2021

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 存在的危险因素
  • 受累肢体寒冷或麻木
  • 复温期间感到疼痛
  • 紫色皮肤变色
  • 白色或黄色皮肤斑块
  • 浅表皮肤起水疱
  • 深紫色水疱
  • 组织坏死和干化(干性坏疽)
更多 关键诊断因素

其他诊断因素

  • 红斑
  • 关节脱位
  • 骨折
其他诊断因素

危险因素

  • 寒冷暴露
  • 既往冻伤
  • 血管功能不全
  • 高海拔
  • 缺氧
  • 酒精
  • 烟草
  • 脱水
  • 四肢外伤
  • 紧缩性服装或设备
更多 危险因素

诊断性检查

首要检查

  • 临床诊断
更多 首要检查

需考虑的检查

  • 锝-99m 高锝酸盐核素显像
  • 受伤肢体的磁共振血管造影
  • 平片影像扫描检查
更多 需考虑的检查

新兴检查

  • 热像图和双面图像

治疗流程

急症处理

所有患者

撰稿人

作者

Elizabeth A. Kaufman, MD, CAQ-SM

Attending Physician

Scripps Green Hospital

Urgent Care Center

Scripps Clinic

La Jolla

CA

利益声明

EAK declares that she has no competing interests.

Christopher Imray, PhD, FRCS, FRCP, FRGS

Director of Research, Development and Innovation

University Hospital Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust

Warwick Medical School

Coventry

UK

利益声明

CI has been paid for medico-legal work as a medical expert and receives royalties of approximately £150 per annum for the Oxford Handbook of Wilderness and Environmental Medicine. CI has spoken pro bono at lectures and other educational events.

鸣谢

Professor Christopher Imray and Dr Elizabeth A. Kaufman would like to gratefully acknowledge Professor Paul S. Auerbach and Dr Claire Turchi, previous contributors to this topic. PSA and CT declare that they have no competing interests.

同行评议者

Luanne Freer, MD, FACEP, FAWM

Medical Director

Yellowstone National Park

WY

Founder/Director

Everest Base Camp Medical Clinic

Nepal

利益声明

LF declares that she has no competing interests.

Grant S. Lipman, MD

Clinical Assistant Professor of Surgery and Emergency Medicine

Associate Director Wilderness Medicine Fellowship

Assistant Research Director

Stanford University School of Medicine

Palo Alto

CA

利益声明

GSL declares that he has no competing interests.

Peter Hackett, MD

Director

Institute for Altitude Medicine

Telluride

CO

利益声明

PH declares that he has no competing interests.

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