最近审阅: 24 十月 2020
最近更新: 06 十二月 2019

小结

鉴别诊断

常见

  • 上呼吸道病毒性感染
  • 鼻息肉
  • 慢性炎症性鼻窦疾病
  • 额部或枕部创伤
  • 额部或枕部撞击可导致震荡伤。
  • 年龄

不常见

  • 化学暴露
  • 药物暴露
  • 头颈部放疗
  • 阿尔茨海默病
  • 帕金森病
  • 前颅骨切开术
  • 颅面部操作
  • 鼻内镜下鼻窦手术
  • 肉芽肿性多血管炎
  • 结节病
  • 干燥综合征
  • 鼻窦肿瘤
  • 鼻腔神经胶质瘤
  • 嗅沟脑膜瘤
  • Turner 综合征
  • Kallmann综合征

撰稿人

Allen M. Seiden

Professor of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery

University of Cincinnati

Cincinnati

OH

利益声明

AMS has received fanancial reimbursement from his employer for attending scientific/educational meetings. AMS is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

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ENT Consultant and Honorary Senior Lecturer

University of Aberdeen

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery

Aberdeen Royal Infirmary

Aberdeen

UK

利益声明

SKM declares that she has no competing interests.

ENT Consultant

Royal National Throat, Nose, and Ear Hospital

London

UK

利益声明

SG declares that he has no competing interests.

Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary

Harvard Medical School

Boston

MA

利益声明

EHH declares that he has no competing interests.

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