黄疸是胆红素在血流中蓄积，继而在皮肤、巩膜和粘膜中沉积。总胆红素水平的正常范围为 3.4-20 µmol/L (0.2-1.2 mg/dL)。在血清胆红素水平> 51 µmol/L (3 mg/dL) 前，黄疸在临床上可能不明显。
通过采集重点病史和体格检查，可以准确诊断出约 85% 的患者。
Consultant Gastroenterologist and Associate Lecturer in Medicine
University of the West Indies
Department of Medicine
San Fernando General Hospital
RR declares that he has no competing interests.
Dr Rene Ramnarace would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Harry R. Dalton, Dr Peter Draganov, and Dr Grant F. Hutchins, previous contributors to this topic.
HRD, PD and GFH declare that they have no competing interests.
Associate Professor of Surgery
Division of General Pediatric Surgery; Director of the Trauma Program
JSU declares that he has no competing interests.
Laparoscopic Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeon
GS declares that he has no competing interests.
Professor of Medicine
Division of Liver Diseases
Mount Sinai Hospital
JA declares that he has no competing interests.