最后审阅: 28 十月 2021
最后更新: 24 十一月 2020

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 存在的危险因素
  • 咳嗽
  • 流感样疾病
  • 呼吸困难
  • 发热
  • 啰音、干啰音
  • 喘鸣
  • 呼吸音减弱
  • 呼吸急促

其他诊断因素

  • 腹痛、呕吐、腹泻
  • 意识状态改变
  • 惊厥

危险因素

  • 密切接触受感染鸟类
  • 近期前往存在 HPAI-H5N1 病毒感染的国家旅行
  • H5N1 环境暴露
  • 与感染者密切接触
  • 接触 H5N1 病毒的实验室工作人员

诊断性检查

首要检查

  • FBC 和分类计数
  • 肝功能检查 (LFT)
  • 胸部 X 线检查
  • 脉搏血氧测定
  • 痰液革兰氏染色
  • 痰菌培养和血培养
  • 呼吸道样本的逆转录聚合酶链反应(reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, RT-PCR

需考虑的检查

  • 呼吸道样本的病毒培养

新兴检查

  • 用于回顾性诊断的 H5N1 特异性抗体血清学检测

治疗流程

撰稿人

作者

Justin R. Ortiz, MD, MS

Affiliate Assistant Professor of Medicine & Global Health

University of Washington

Seattle

WA

利益声明

JRO received honorarium from Pfizer for speaking on adult immunisation policies at the 2019 Immunisation for All Ages Summit and participation on the Immunisation for All Ages Steering Group. JRO has participated on the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network for Sanofi and has received honorarium from the International Federation on Aging for speaking about adult immunisation policies at the 2019 United Nations International Day of Older Persons side event “End Immunisation Inequality Toward Healthy Aging”. JRO receives research grants and contracts to evaluate influenza vaccines from the National Institutes of Health and has served as a medical monitor for a cholera vaccine study for Pharmaron.

Timothy M. Uyeki, MD, MPH, MPP

Chief Medical Officer

Influenza Division

National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Atlanta

GA

利益声明

TMU declares that he has no competing interests.

同行评议者

Waleed Javaid, MD, FACP, FIDSA

Associate Professor

Medical Director of Infection Control

Infectious Disease

Department of Medicine

SUNY Upstate Medical University

Syracuse

NY

利益声明

WJ declares that he has no competing interests.

An De Sutter, MD, PhD

Associate Professor

Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care

Ghent University

Belgium

利益声明

ADS declares that she has no competing interests.

Nayer Khazeni, MD, MS

Assistant Professor

Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine

Associate

Center for Health Policy/Center for Primary Care & Outcomes Research

Stanford University School of Medicine

Stanford

CA

利益声明

NK declares that she has no competing interests.

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