最近审阅: 6 十一月 2020
最近更新: 24 七月 2018

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 存在破伤风易感伤口
  • 破伤风免疫接种状态
  • 张口困难(牙关紧闭)
  • 背痛
  • 肌肉强直/肌张力增加
  • 吞咽困难
  • 痉挛

其他诊断因素

  • 注射吸毒习惯
  • 呼吸窘迫
  • 血压、脉搏和体温不稳
  • 出汗

危险因素

  • 不完整的破伤风免疫接种
  • 损伤
  • 无菌产科实践
  • 注射吸毒习惯
  • 无菌肌内注射
  • 腹部手术
  • 针刺疗法、穿耳洞、修脚、牙签剔牙
  • 坏死肿瘤
  • 中耳感染

诊断性检查

需考虑的检查

  • 破伤风的临床诊断特点
  • 血清毒素
  • 伤口组织或拭子中检测到破伤风梭菌
  • 血清抗毒素抗体
  • 药物样品或者设备上的孢子
  • 腰椎穿刺:
  • 脑电图 (EEG)
  • 肌电图 (EMG)
更多 需考虑的检查

治疗流程

撰稿人

Consultant in Infectious Diseases

Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust

Leeds

UK

利益声明

LEC declares that she has no competing interests.

Senior Lecturer (Honorary Consultant)

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and Royal Liverpool University Hospital

Liverpool

UK

利益声明

NJB is an author of several references cited in this monograph. NJB is partially supported by the National Institute of Health Research Health Protection Unit in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections at the University of Liverpool and Public Health England. He is affiliated with the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Views expressed in this monograph are those of the contributor and do not necessarily represent the official position of the National Health Service, the National Institute for Health Research, the Department of Health, or Public Health England.

Professor in Paediatric Infection (Honorary Consultant)

University of Liverpool and Alder Hey Children’s NHS Foundation Trust

Liverpool

UK

利益声明

EDC declares that she has no competing interests.

Consultant in Medical Microbiology

Alder Hey Children’s NHS Foundation Trust

Honorary Senior Lecturer, University of Liverpool

Honorary Clinical Research Fellow, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine

Liverpool

UK

Visiting Professor

School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health

Nagasaki University

Japan

利益声明

CMP is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

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Senior Clinical Research Fellow

Oxford University Clinical Research Unit

Hospital for Tropical Diseases

Ho Chi Minh City

Vietnam

Centre for Tropical Medicine and Global Health

Oxford University

Oxford

UK

利益声明

LT is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.

Commander

U.S. Public Health Service

Medical Epidemiologist

HIV Vaccine Team

Epidemiology Branch

Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention

National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Atlanta

GA

利益声明

KK declares that she has no competing interests.

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