最后审核时间: 一月 2020
最近更新时间: 二月  2019

小结

定义

病史和查体

关键诊断因素

  • 存在的危险因素
  • 咳嗽伴痰增多
  • 发热或寒战
  • 呼吸困难
  • 胸膜痛
  • 听诊异常

其他诊断因素

  • 叩诊浊音
  • 肌痛
  • 关节痛
  • 意识模糊

危险因素

  • 年龄>65 岁
  • 居住在医疗保健机构
  • 慢性阻塞性肺病 (COPD)
  • 暴露于香烟烟雾
  • 酗酒
  • 口腔卫生不佳
  • 使用胃酸抑制类药物
  • 与儿童接触
  • 糖尿病
  • 慢性肾病
  • 慢性肝病
  • 阿片类药物的应用

诊断性检查

首要检查

  • 胸部 X 线检查
  • 全血细胞计数(FBC)
  • 血清电解质、尿素
  • 血糖
  • 动脉血气/血氧测定法
更多 首要检查

需要考虑的检查

  • 血液培养
  • 痰培养
  • 针对军团菌和肺炎球菌的尿抗原检测
  • 肝功能检查
  • 胸腔穿刺术和胸水培养
  • 支气管镜检查
  • C 反应蛋白
  • 降钙素原
  • 急性期和康复期血清学检测
  • 呼吸道病毒检测
  • 分子微生物技术
  • 胸部 CT 扫描
  • 肺部超声检查
更多 需要考虑的检查

治疗流程

贡献者

Post-doctoral Research

Pneumology Department

Hospital Clinic of Barcelona

CIBERES

IDIBAPS

Barcelona

Spain

利益冲突披露

CC is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

Professor of Medicine

Director

Pulmonary Intensive Care Unit

Respiratory Institute

Hospital Clinic of Barcelona

Barcelona

Spain

利益冲突披露

AT is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

Dr Catia Cilloniz and Professor Antoni Torres would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr M. Nawal Lutfiyya, Dr Linda Chang, and Dr Robert Bales, previous contributors to this monograph. MNL is an author of a reference cited in this monograph. LC and RB declare that they have no competing interests.

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Assistant Professor

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine

University of Utah

Salt Lake City

UT

利益冲突披露

BJ declares that she has no competing interests.

Associate Professor

Departments of Emergency Medicine and Medicine

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

New York

NY

利益冲突披露

DN declares that she has no competing interests.

Professor of Medicine

Royal Perth Hospital

Perth

Australia

利益冲突披露

GW declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Respiratory Infection/Honorary Consultant

University College London

London

UK

利益冲突披露

JB was a member of the NICE pneumonia guidelines committee.

Professor (clinical) of Medicine

Section Chief Pulmonary Critical Care Medicine

University of Utah

Intermountain Medical Center

Murray

UT

利益冲突披露

ND declares that he has no competing interests.

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