最近审阅: 23 十月 2020
最近更新: 24 八月 2018

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 存在的危险因素
  • “嗝喽”声

其他诊断因素

  • 发作<1小时(良性呃逆)
  • 发作>1小时(顽固性难治性呃逆)
  • 在睡眠中仍持续
  • 潜在病因的相关特点
  • 体重减轻和营养不良

危险因素

  • 吞气症,温度变化,情绪状态
  • 横膈以及膈神经的刺激
  • 迷走神经的刺激
  • 中枢神经系统病变
  • 代谢性/电解质紊乱
  • 毒素/药物
  • 心因性障碍
  • 镇静或麻醉

诊断性检查

需考虑的检查

  • 全血细胞计数 (FBC)
  • 血清电解质
  • 尿素
  • C 反应蛋白和红细胞沉降率
  • 肝功能检查
  • γ-谷氨酰转肽酶(γ-GT)
  • 血清淀粉酶
  • 毒理学筛查
  • 动脉血气
  • 心电图 (ECG)
  • 胸部 X 线检查 (CXR)
  • 肺功能检查 (PFT)
  • 腹部 CT
  • 上消化道内窥镜检查
  • 头部 CT 或 MRI(核磁共振)
  • 腰椎穿刺:
  • 耳镜检查
  • 咽喉镜检查
更多 需考虑的检查

治疗流程

撰稿人

Peter Kranke

Professor of Anaesthesia

Department of Anaesthesia and Critical Care

University of Würzburg Hospital

Würzburg

Germany

利益声明

PK is an author of a reference cited in this topic.

Assistant Physician and Study Subinvestigator

Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care

University Hospital of Wuerzburg

Wuerzburg

Germany

利益声明

YJ declares that she has no competing interests.

Professor Peter Kranke and Dr Yvonne Jelting would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Thomas M. Metterlein, a previous contributor to this topic. TMM declares that he has no competing interests.

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Consultant Anaesthetist and Associate Director of Research and Development

Director

Lancaster Patient Safety Research Unit

Royal Lancaster Infirmary

Lancaster

UK

利益声明

AS declares that he has no competing interests.

Registrar

Department of Surgical Gastroenterology

Herlev Hospital

University of Copenhagen

Denmark

利益声明

SKB declares that he has no competing interests.

Academic Director of Pain Management

Associate Professor of Anesthesiology

Department of Anesthesiology

Albany Medical College

Albany

NY

利益声明

HS is an author of a reference cited in this topic.

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