Embarazo ectópico


Artículos principales

Kirk E, Bottomley C, Bourne T. Diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and current concepts in the management of pregnancy of unknown location. Hum Reprod Update. 2014 Mar-Apr;20(2):250-61.Texto completo  Resumen

Barnhart KT. Clinical practice: ectopic pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jul 23;361(4):379-87. Resumen

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage: diagnosis and initial management. Nov 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

Artículos de referencia

1. Bouyer J, Coste J, Fernandez H, et al. Sites of ectopic pregnancy: a 10 year population-based study of 1800 cases. Hum Reprod. 2002 Dec;17(12):3224-30.Texto completo  Resumen

2. Ankum WM, Mol BW, Van Der Veen F, et al. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 1996 Jun;65(6):1093-9. Resumen

3. Comstock C, Huston K, Lee W. The ultrasonographic appearance of ovarian ectopic pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Jan;105(1):42-5. Resumen

4. Cepni I, Ocal P, Erkan S, Erzik B. Conservative treatment of cervical ectopic pregnancy with transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspiration and single-dose methotrexate. Fertil Steril. 2004 Apr;81(4):1130-2. Resumen

5. Benson CB, Doubilet PM. Strategies for conservative treatment of cervical ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 1996 Dec;8(6):371-2. Resumen

6. Dilbaz S, Katas B, Demir B, Dilbaz B. Treating cornual pregnancy with a single methotrexate injection: a report of 3 cases. J Reprod Med. 2005 Feb;50(2):141-4. Resumen

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9. Fylstra DL. Ectopic pregnancy after hysterectomy: a review and insight into etiology and prevention. Fertil Steril. 2010 Jul;94(2):431-5. Resumen

10. Bakken IJ, Skjeldestad FE. Incidence and treatment of extrauterine pregnancies in Norway 1990-2001. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2003 Nov 6;123(21):3016-20. Resumen

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13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Ectopic pregnancy - United States, 1990-1992. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1995 Jan 27;44(3):46-8.Texto completo  Resumen

14. Hoover KW, Tao G, Kent CK. Trends in the diagnosis and treatment of ectopic pregnancy in the United States. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Mar;115(3):495-502. Resumen

15. Creanga AA, Shapiro-Mendoza CK, Bish CL, et al. Trends in ectopic pregnancy mortality in the United States: 1980-2007. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Apr;117(4):837-43. Resumen

16. Dart RG, Kaplan B, Varaklis K. Predictive value of history and physical examination in patients with suspected ectopic pregnancy. Ann Emerg Med. 1999 Mar;33(3):283-90. Resumen

17. Seeber BE, Barnhart KT. Suspected ectopic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Feb;107(2 Pt 1):399-413. Resumen

18. Stulberg DB, Cain LR, Dahlquist I, et al. Ectopic pregnancy rates and racial disparities in the Medicaid population, 2004-2008. Fertil Steril. 2014 Dec;102(6):1671-6. Resumen

19. Djahanbakhch O, Ezzati M, Saridogan E. Physiology and pathophysiology of tubal transport: ciliary activity and muscular contractility, relevance to tubal infertility, recent research, and future directions. In: Ledger WL, Tan SL, Bahathiq AOS, eds. The fallopian tube in infertility and IVF practice. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 2010:18-29.

20. Kutluay L, Vicdan K, Turan C, et al. Tubal histopathology in ectopic pregnancies. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1994; 57:91-94. Resumen

21. Attar E. Endocrinology of ectopic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2004;31:779-794. Resumen

22. Goddijn M, van der Veen F, Schuring-Blom GH, et al. Cytogenetic characteristics of ectopic pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 1996;11:2769-2771. Resumen

23. Ruderman RS, McQueen DB, Robins JC, et al. Novel ploidy analysis in ectopic pregnancy. F S Rep. 2021 Mar;2(1):67-71.Texto completo  Resumen

24. Barnhart KT, Sammel MD, Gracia CR, et al. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in women with symptomatic first-trimester pregnancies. Fertil Steril. 2006 Jul;86(1):36-43. Resumen

25. Yao M, Tulandi T. Current status of surgical and non-surgical treatment of ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 1997 Mar;67(3):421-33. Resumen

26. Peterson HB, Xia Z, Hughes JM, et al. The risk of ectopic pregnancy after tubal sterilization. US Collaborative Review of Sterilization Working Group. N Engl J Med. 1997 Mar 13;336(11):762-7.Texto completo  Resumen

27. Goldberg JM, Falcone T. Effect of diethylstilbesterol on reproductive function. Fertil Steril. 1999 Jul;72(1):1-7. Resumen

28. Sivin I. Dose- and age-dependent ectopic pregnancy risks with intrauterine contraception. Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Aug;78(2):291-8. Resumen

29. Hillis SD, Owens LM, Marchbanks PA, et al. Recurrent Chlamydia infections increase the risks of hospitalization for ectopic pregnancy and pelvic inflammatory disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1997 Jan;176(1 Pt 1):103-7. Resumen

30. Saraiya M, Berg CJ, Kendrick JS, et al. Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for ectopic pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Mar;178(3):493-8. Resumen

31. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee opinion: tobacco and nicotine cessation during pregnancy. May 2020 [internet publication].Texto completo

32. Strandell A, Thorburn J, Hamberger L. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in assisted reproduction. Fertil Steril. 1999 Feb;71(2):282-6. Resumen

33. Muller V, Makhmadalieva M, Kogan I, et al. Ectopic pregnancy following in vitro fertilization: meta-analysis and single-center experience during 6 years. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2016 Oct;32(suppl 2):69-74.Texto completo  Resumen

34. Perkins KM, Boulet SL, Kissin DM, et al; National ART Surveillance (NASS) Group. Risk of ectopic pregnancy associated with assisted reproductive technology in the United States, 2001-2011. Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Jan;125(1):70-8.Texto completo  Resumen

35. Shapiro BS, Daneshmand ST, De Leon L, et al. Frozen-thawed embryo transfer is associated with a significantly reduced incidence of ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 2012 Dec;98(6):1490-4. Resumen

36. Pisarska MD, Carson SA, Buster JE. Ectopic pregnancy. Lancet. 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1115-20. Resumen

37. Storeide O, Veholmen M, Eide M, et al. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy in Hordaland county, Norway 1976-1993. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1997 Apr;76(4):345-9. Resumen

38. Sheele JM, Bernstein R, Counselman FL. A ruptured ectopic pregnancy presenting with a negative urine pregnancy test. Case Rep Emerg Med. 2016;2016:7154713.Texto completo  Resumen

39. Huchon C, Panel P, Kayem G, et al. Is a standardized questionnaire useful for tubal rupture screening in patients with ectopic pregnancy? Acad Emerg Med. 2012 Jan;19(1):24-30. Resumen

40. Kruszka PS, Kruszka SJ. Evaluation of acute pelvic pain in women. Am Fam Physician. 2010 Jul 15;82(2):141-7.Texto completo  Resumen

41. Bhavsar AK, Gelner EJ, Shorma T. Common questions about the evaluation of acute pelvic pain. Am Fam Physician. 2016 Jan 1;93(1):41-8.Texto completo  Resumen

42. Crochet JR, Bastian LA, Chireau MV. Does this woman have an ectopic pregnancy? The rational clinical examination systematic review. JAMA. 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1722-9. Resumen

43. ACOG practice bulletin no. 193: tubal ectopic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Mar;131(3):e91-103. Resumen

44. Kirk E, Bottomley C, Bourne T. Diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and current concepts in the management of pregnancy of unknown location. Hum Reprod Update. 2014 Mar-Apr;20(2):250-61.Texto completo  Resumen

45. Barnhart K, van Mello NM, Bourne T, et al. Pregnancy of unknown location: a consensus statement of nomenclature, definitions, and outcome. Fertil Steril. 2011 Mar 1;95(3):857-66. Resumen

46. Sivalingam VN, Duncan WC, Kirk E, et al. Diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy. J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care. 2011 Oct;37(4):231-40.Texto completo  Resumen

47. Connolly A, Ryan DH, Stuebe AM, et al. Reevaluation of discriminatory and threshold levels for serum β-hCG in early pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jan;121(1):65-70. Resumen

48. Condous G, Kirk E, Lu C, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of varying discriminatory zones for the prediction of ectopic pregnancy in women with a pregnancy of unknown location. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Dec;26(7):770-5.Texto completo  Resumen

49. Barnhart KT, Guo W, Cary MS, et al. Differences in serum human chorionic gonadotropin rise in early pregnancy by race and value at presentation. Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Sep;128(3):504-11.Texto completo  Resumen

50. Barnhart KT, Senapati S, Sammel MD. Declaring a gestation nonviable: when 99% certainty is not enough. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2021 Feb;224(2):232-3.Texto completo  Resumen

51. Silva C, Sammel MD, Zhou L, et al. Human chorionic gonadotropin profile for women with ectopic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Mar;107(3):605-10. Resumen

52. Dillon KE, Sioulas VD, Sammel MD, et al. How and when human chorionic gonadotropin curves in women with an ectopic pregnancy mimic other outcomes: differences by race and ethnicity. Fertil Steril. 2012 Oct;98(4):911-6. Resumen

53. Hendriks E, Rosenberg R, Prine L. Ectopic pregnancy: diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician. 2020 May 15;101(10):599-606.Texto completo  Resumen

54. Barnhart K, Sammel MD, Chung K, et al. Decline of serum human chorionic gonadotropin and spontaneous complete abortion: defining the normal curve. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Nov;104(5 Pt 1):975-81. Resumen

55. Barnhart KT. Clinical practice: ectopic pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jul 23;361(4):379-87. Resumen

56. Elson CJ, Salim R, Potdar N, et al; Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy: Green-top Guideline No. 21. BJOG. 2016 Dec;123(13):e15-e55.Texto completo  Resumen

57. Rausch ME, Sammel MD, Takacs P, et al. Development of a multiple marker test for ectopic pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Mar;117(3):573-82. Resumen

58. Teixeira JL, Rabaioli P, Savaris RF. Sensitivity and specificity of a urinary screening test used in an emergency setting to detect abnormal first trimester pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Jan;212(1):58.e1-5. Resumen

59. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage: diagnosis and initial management. Nov 2021 [internet publication].Texto completo

60. Goldstein SR, Snyder JR, Watson C, et al. Very early pregnancy detection with endovaginal ultrasound. Obstet Gynecol. 1988 Aug;72(2):200-4. Resumen

61. Barnhart KT, Hansen KR, Stephenson MD, et al. Effect of an active vs expectant management strategy on successful resolution of pregnancy among patients with a persisting pregnancy of unknown location: the ACT or NOT randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2021 Aug 3;326(5):390-400.Texto completo  Resumen

62. Morse CB, Sammel MD, Shaunik A, et al. Performance of human chorionic gonadotropin curves in women at risk for ectopic pregnancy: exceptions to the rules. Fertil Steril. 2012 Jan;97(1):101-6.e2. Resumen

63. Spielberg O. Zur Cauistik Schwanger Schaft. Arch F Gynak. 1878;13:73.

64. Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM). Miller R, Timor-Tritsch IE, et al. Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) Consult Series #49: Cesarean scar pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020 May;222(5):B2-B14.Texto completo  Resumen

65. Long Y, Zhu H, Hu Y, et al. Interventions for non-tubal ectopic pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jul 1;7:CD011174.Texto completo  Resumen

66. Po L, Thomas J, Mills K, et al. Guideline no. 414: management of pregnancy of unknown location and tubal and nontubal ectopic pregnancies. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2021 May;43(5):614-30.e1.Texto completo  Resumen

67. Korhonen J, Stenman UH, Ylöstalo P. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin dynamics during spontaneous resolution of ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 1994 Apr;61(4):632-6. Resumen

68. van Mello NM, Mol F, Verhoeve HR, et al. Methotrexate or expectant management in women with an ectopic pregnancy or pregnancy of unknown location and low serum hCG concentrations? A randomized comparison. Hum Reprod. 2013 Jan;28(1):60-7.Texto completo  Resumen

69. Menon S, Colins J, Barnhart KT. Establishing a human chorionic gonadotropin cutoff to guide methotrexate treatment of ectopic pregnancy: a systematic review. Fertil Steril. 2007 Mar;87(3):481-4. Resumen

70. Karadeniz RS, Tasci Y, Altay M, et al. Tubal rupture in ectopic pregnancy: is it predictable? Minerva Ginecol. 2015 Feb;67(1):13-9. Resumen

71. Barnhart KT, Gosman G, Ashby R, et al. The medical management of ectopic pregnancy: a meta-analysis comparing "single dose" and "multidose" regimens. Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Apr;101(4):778-84.Texto completo  Resumen

72. Alur-Gupta S, Cooney LG, Senapati S, et al. Two-dose versus single-dose methotrexate for treatment of ectopic pregnancy: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2019 Aug;221(2):95-108.e2. Resumen

73. Wang M, Chen B, Wang J, et al. Nonsurgical management of live tubal ectopic pregnancy by ultrasound-guided local injection and systemic methotrexate. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2014 Jul-Aug;21(4):642-9. Resumen

74. Gao M-XG. Laparoscopy versus laparotomy for ectopic pregnancy: a systematic review. Chin J Evid Based Med. 2008 Jul-Aug;14(4):309-19.

75. Mol F, Mol BW, Ankum WM, et al. Current evidence on surgery, systemic methotrexate and expectant management in the treatment of tubal ectopic pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2008 Jul-Aug;14(4):309-19.Texto completo  Resumen

76. Hajenius PJ, Mol BW, Mol BWJ, et al. Interventions for tubal ectopic pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007;(1):CD000324.Texto completo  Resumen

77. Mol F, van Mello NM, Strandell A, et al. Salpingotomy versus salpingectomy in women with tubal pregnancy (ESEP study): an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2014 Apr 26;383(9927):1483-9. Resumen

78. Yong PJ, Thurston J, Singh SS, et al. Guideline No. 386-Gynaecologic surgery in the obese patient. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2019 Sep;41(9):1356-70.e7.Texto completo  Resumen

79. American College of Emergency Physicians Clinical Policies Subcommittee (Writing Committee) on Early Pregnancy: Hahn SA, Promes SB, Brown MD. Clinical policy: critical issues in the initial evaluation and management of patients presenting to the emergency department in early pregnancy. Ann Emerg Med. 2017 Feb;69(2):241-250.e20.Texto completo  Resumen

80. Trio D, Strobelt N, Picciolo C, et al. Prognostic factors for successful expectant management of ectopic pregnancy. Fertil Steril. 1995 Mar;63(3):469-72. Resumen

81. Shalev E, Peleg D, Tsabari A, et al. Spontaneous resolution of ectopic tubal pregnancy: natural history. Fertil Steril. 1995 Jan;63(1):15-9. Resumen

82. Lipscomb GH, McCord ML, Stovall TG, et al. Predictors of success of methotrexate treatment in women with tubal ectopic pregnancies. N Engl J Med. 1999 Dec 23;341(26):1974-8.Texto completo  Resumen

83. Tenore JL. Ectopic pregnancy. Am Fam Physician. 2000 Feb 15;61(4):1080-8.Texto completo  Resumen

84. Tay JI, Moore J, Walker JJ. Ectopic pregnancy. BMJ. 2000 Apr 1;320(7239):916-9.Texto completo  Resumen

85. Fernandez H, Capmas P, Lucot JP, et al. Fertility after ectopic pregnancy: the DEMETER randomized trial. Hum Reprod. 2013 May;28(5):1247-53.Texto completo  Resumen

86. Desroque D, Capmas P, Legendre G, et al. Fertility after ectopic pregnancy [in French]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2010 Sep;39(5):395-400. Resumen

87. Cheng X, Tian X, Yan Z, et al. Comparison of the fertility outcome of salpingotomy and salpingectomy in women with tubal pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152343.Texto completo  Resumen

88. Wiser A, Gilbert A, Nahum R, et al. Effects of treatment of ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate or salpingectomy in the subsequent IVF cycle. Reprod Biomed Online. 2013 May;26(5):449-53.Texto completo  Resumen

89. Boots CE, Hill MJ, Feinberg EC, et al. Methotrexate does not affect ovarian reserve or subsequent assisted reproductive technology outcomes. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2016 May;33(5):647-56.Texto completo  Resumen

90. Yoon SH, Lee JY, Kim SN, et al. Does salpingectomy have a deleterious impact on ovarian response in in vitro fertilization cycles? Fertil Steril. 2016 Oct;106(5):1083-92.e5.Texto completo  Resumen

91. Farquhar CM. Ectopic pregnancy. Lancet. 2005 Aug 13-19;366(9485):583-91. Resumen

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