References

Key articles

Harris AM, Hicks LA, Qaseem A. Appropriate antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infection in adults: advice for high-value care from the American College of Physicians and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ann Intern Med. 2016 Mar 15;164(6):425-34.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

Jefferson T, Del Mar CB, Dooley L, et al. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jul 6;(7):CD006207.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

van Driel ML, Scheire S, Deckx L, et al. What treatments are effective for common cold in adults and children? BMJ. 2018 Oct 10;363:k3786.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

De Sutter AI, van Driel ML, Kumar AA, et al. Oral antihistamine-decongestant-analgesic combinations for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Feb 15;(2):CD004976.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

Isbister GK, Prior F, Kilham HA. Restricting cough and cold medicines in children. J Paediatr Child Health. 2012 Feb;48(2):91-8.Abstract external link opens in a new window

Smith SM, Schroeder K, Fahey T. Over-the-counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults in community settings. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Nov 24;(11):CD001831.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

Kenealy T, Arroll B. Antibiotics for the common cold and acute purulent rhinitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jun 4;(6):CD000247.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

Reference articles

1. Harris AM, Hicks LA, Qaseem A. Appropriate antibiotic use for acute respiratory tract infection in adults: advice for high-value care from the American College of Physicians and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ann Intern Med. 2016 Mar 15;164(6):425-34.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

2. Bramley TJ, Lerner D, Sames M. Productivity losses related to the common cold. J Occup Environ Med. 2002 Sep;44(9):822-9.Abstract external link opens in a new window

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13. Cohen S, Tyrrell DA, Russell MA, et al. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and susceptibility to the common cold. Am J Public Health. 1993 Sep;83(9):1277-83.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

14. Jefferson T, Del Mar CB, Dooley L, et al. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jul 6;(7):CD006207.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

15. Hübner NO, Hübner C, Wodny M, et al. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectants in a public administration: impact on health and work performance related to acute respiratory symptoms and diarrhoea. BMC Infect Dis. 2010 Aug 24;10:250.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

16. MacIntyre CR, Chughtai AA. Facemasks for the prevention of infection in healthcare and community settings. BMJ. 2015 Apr 9;350:h694.Abstract external link opens in a new window

17. Smith JD, MacDougall CC, Johnstone J, et al. Effectiveness of N95 respirators versus surgical masks in protecting health care workers from acute respiratory infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2016 May 17;188(8):567-74.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

18. Hemilä H, Chalker E. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jan 31;(1):CD000980.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

19. Gómez E, Quidel S, Bravo-Soto G, et al. Does vitamin C prevent the common cold?. Medwave. 2018 Aug 6;18(4):e7235.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

20. Karsch-Völk M, Barrett B, Kiefer D, et al. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Feb 20;(2):CD000530.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

21. Vakili R, Vahedian M, Khodaei GH, et al. Effects of zinc supplementation in occurrence and duration of common cold in school aged children during cold season: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Iranian J Pediatr. 2009;19(4):376-80.

22. Martineau AR, Hanifa Y, Witt KD, et al. Double-blind randomised controlled trial of vitamin D3 supplementation for the prevention of acute respiratory infection in older adults and their carers (ViDiFlu). Thorax. 2015 Oct;70(10):953-60.Abstract external link opens in a new window

23. Aglipay M, Birken CS, Parkin PC, et al. Effect of high-dose vs standard-dose wintertime vitamin D supplementation on viral upper respiratory tract infections in young healthy children. JAMA. 2017 Jul 18;318(3):245-54.Abstract external link opens in a new window

24. McIsaac WJ, White D, Tannenbaum D, et al. A clinical score to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use in patients with sore throat. CMAJ. 1998 Jan 13;158(1):75-83.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

25. Call SA, Vollenweider MA, Hornung CA, et al. Does this patient have influenza? JAMA. 2005 Feb 23;293(8):987-97.Abstract external link opens in a new window

26. Aabenhus R, Jensen JU, Jørgensen KJ, et al. Biomarkers as point-of-care tests to guide prescription of antibiotics in patients with acute respiratory infections in primary care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Nov 6;(11):CD010130.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

27. Doan Q, Enarson P, Kissoon N, et al. Rapid viral diagnosis for acute febrile respiratory illness in children in the Emergency Department. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Sep 15;(9):CD006452.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

28. Barrett B, Brown R, Rakel D, et al. Placebo effects and the common cold: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Fam Med. 2011 Jul-Aug;9(4):312-22.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

29. Rakel D, Barrett B, Zhang Z, et al. Perception of empathy in the therapeutic encounter: effects on the common cold. Patient Educ Couns. 2011 Dec;85(3):390-7.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

30. Coxeter P, Del Mar CB, McGregor L, et al. Interventions to facilitate shared decision making to address antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in primary care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 12;(11):CD010907.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

31. Guppy MP, Mickan SM, Del Mar CB, et al. Advising patients to increase fluid intake for treating acute respiratory infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Feb 16;(2):CD004419.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

32. van Driel ML, Scheire S, Deckx L, et al. What treatments are effective for common cold in adults and children? BMJ. 2018 Oct 10;363:k3786.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

33. Li S, Yue J, Dong BR, et al. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) for the common cold in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jul 1;(7):CD008800.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

34. Eccles R. Efficacy and safety of over-the-counter analgesics in the treatment of common cold and flu. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2006 Aug;31(4):309-19.Abstract external link opens in a new window

35. Kim SY, Chang YJ, Cho HM, et al. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Sep 21;(9):CD006362.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

36. McCarthy DM. Efficacy and gastrointestinal risk of aspirin used for the treatment of pain and cold. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2012 Apr;26(2):101-12.Abstract external link opens in a new window

37. Lanas A, McCarthy D, Voelker M, et al. Short-term acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) use for pain, fever, or colds - gastrointestinal adverse effects: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Drugs R D. 2011 Sep 1;11(3):277-88.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

38. Deckx L, De Sutter AI, Guo L, et al. Nasal decongestants in monotherapy for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Oct 17;(10):CD009612.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

39. Eccles R, Martensson K, Chen SC. Effects of intranasal xylometazoline, alone or in combination with ipratropium, in patients with common cold. Curr Med Res Opin. 2010 Apr;26(4):889-99.Abstract external link opens in a new window

40. Allan GM, Arroll B. Prevention and treatment of the common cold: making sense of the evidence. CMAJ. 2014 Feb 18;186(3):190-9.Abstract external link opens in a new window

41. De Sutter AI, Saraswat A, van Driel ML. Antihistamines for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 29;(11):CD009345.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

42. De Sutter AI, van Driel ML, Kumar AA, et al. Oral antihistamine-decongestant-analgesic combinations for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Feb 15;(2):CD004976.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

43. AlBalawi ZH, Othman SS, AlFaleh K. Intranasal ipratropium bromide for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jun 19;(6):CD008231.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

44. US Food and Drug Administration. Use caution when giving cough and cold products to kids. February 2018 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

45. King D, Mitchell B, Williams CP, et al. Saline nasal irrigation for acute upper respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Apr 20;(4):CD006821.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

46. Green JL, Wang GS, Reynolds KM, et al. Safety profile of cough and cold medication use in pediatrics. Pediatrics. 2017 Jun;139(6).Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

47. Isbister GK, Prior F, Kilham HA. Restricting cough and cold medicines in children. J Paediatr Child Health. 2012 Feb;48(2):91-8.Abstract external link opens in a new window

48. Smith SM, Schroeder K, Fahey T. Over-the-counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults in community settings. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Nov 24;(11):CD001831.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

49. Malesker MA, Callahan-Lyon P, Ireland B, et al. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment for acute cough associated with the common cold: CHEST expert panel report. Chest. 2017 Nov;152(5):1021-37.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

50. Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA requires labeling changes for prescription opioid cough and cold medicines to limit their use to adults 18 years and older. January 2018 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

51. Oduwole O, Udoh EE, Oyo-Ita A, et al. Honey for acute cough in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Apr 10;(4):CD007094.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

52. El-Gohary M, Hay AD, Coventry P, et al. Corticosteroids for acute and subacute cough following respiratory tract infection: a systematic review. Fam Pract. 2013 Oct;30(5):492-500.Abstract external link opens in a new window

53. Kenealy T, Arroll B. Antibiotics for the common cold and acute purulent rhinitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Jun 4;(6):CD000247.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

54. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic prescribing and use in doctor’s offices: common cold. Feb 2020 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

55. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Respiratory tract infections (self-limiting): prescribing antibiotics. July 2008 [internet publication].Full text external link opens in a new window

56. Spurling GK, Del Mar CB, Dooley L, et al. Delayed antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Sep 7;(9):CD004417.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

57. O'Sullivan JW, Harvey RT, Glasziou PP, et al. Written information for patients (or parents of child patients) to reduce the use of antibiotics for acute upper respiratory tract infections in primary care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Nov 25;(11):CD011360.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

58. Tonkin-Crine SK, Tan PS, van Hecke O, et al. Clinician-targeted interventions to influence antibiotic prescribing behaviour for acute respiratory infections in primary care: an overview of systematic reviews. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Sep 7;(9):CD012252.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

59. Nahas R, Balla A. Complementary and alternative medicine for prevention and treatment of the common cold. Can Fam Physician. 2011 Jan;57(1):31-6.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

60. Caruso TJ, Prober CG, Gwaltney JM Jr. Treatment of naturally acquired common colds with zinc: a structured review. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Sep 1;45(5):569-74.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

61. Singh M, Singh M, Jaiswal N, et al. Heated, humidified air for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Aug 29;(8):CD001728.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

62. D'Cruze H, Arroll B, Kenealy T, et al. Is intranasal zinc effective and safe for the common cold? A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Prim Health Care. 2009;1:134-139.Abstract external link opens in a new window

63. Hemilä H, Haukka J, Alho M, et al. Zinc acetate lozenges for the treatment of the common cold: a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open. 2020 Jan 23;10(1):e031662.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

64. Hemilä H, Chalker E. Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(1):CD000980.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

65. Quidel S, Gómez E, Bravo-Soto G, et al. What are the effects of vitamin C on the duration and severity of the common cold?. Medwave. 2018 Oct 3;18(6):e7261.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

66. Ran L, Zhao W, Wang J, et al. Extra Dose of Vitamin C Based on a Daily Supplementation Shortens the Common Cold: A Meta-Analysis of 9 Randomized Controlled Trials. Biomed Res Int. 2018;2018:1837634.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

67. Aberg N, Aberg B, Alestig K. The effect of inhaled and intranasal sodium cromoglycate on symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections. Clin Exp Allergy. 1996 Sep;26(9):1045-50.Abstract external link opens in a new window

68. Butler CC, Robling MR, Prout H, et al. The management of suspected acute viral upper respiratory tract infection in children: a community-based randomised controlled trial of treatment with intranasal sodium cromoglycate. Lancet. 2002 Jun 22;359(9324):2153-8.Abstract external link opens in a new window

69. Paul IM, Beiler JS, King TS. Vapor rub, petrolatum, and no treatment for children with nocturnal cough and cold symptoms. Pediatrics. 2010 Dec;126(6):1092-9.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

70. Hayward G, Thompson MJ, Perera R, et al. Corticosteroids for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Oct 13;(10):CD008116.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

71. Rowe CA, Nantz MP, Bukowski JF, et al. Specific formulation of Camellia sinensis prevents cold and flu symptoms and enhances gamma,delta T cell function: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Oct;26(5):445-52.Abstract external link opens in a new window

72. Pittler MH, Ernst E. Clinical effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum). Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Nov;51(11):1382-5.Abstract external link opens in a new window

73. Lissiman E, Bhasale AL, Cohen M. Garlic for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Nov 11;(11):CD006206.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

74. Zhang X, Wu T, Zhang J, et al. Chinese medicinal herbs for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jan 24;(1):CD004782.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

75. Byun JS, Yang SY, Jeong IC, et al. Effects of So-cheong-ryong-tang and Yeon-gyo-pae-dok-san on the common cold: randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jan 27;133(2):642-6.Abstract external link opens in a new window

76. Timmer A, Günther J, Motschall E, et al. Pelargonium sidoides extract for treating acute respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Oct 22;(10):CD006323.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

77. Fan T, Zhang Y, Jiang H, et al. Huo Xiang Zhengqi dropping pill in treating wind cold and dampness stagnation pattern of common cold: a randomized controlled trial [in Chinese]. Chin J Evid Based Med. 2012;3:283-288.

78. Ross SM. African geranium (EPs 7630), part I: a proprietary root extract of Pelargonium sidoides (EPs 7630) is found to be effective in resolving symptoms associated with the common cold in adults. Holist Nurs Pract. 2012;26:106-109.Abstract external link opens in a new window

79. Larmo P, Alin J, Salminen E, et al. Effects of sea buckthorn berries on infections and inflammation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Sep;62(9):1123-30.Abstract external link opens in a new window

80. Hawkins J, Baker C, Cherry L, et al. Black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) supplementation effectively treats upper respiratory symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials. Complement Ther Med. 2019 Feb;42:361-5.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

81. Hawke K, van Driel ML, Buffington BJ, et al. Homeopathic medicinal products for preventing and treating acute respiratory tract infections in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Apr 9;4:CD005974.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

82. Mousnier A, Bell AS, Swieboda DP, et al. Fragment-derived inhibitors of human N-myristoyltransferase block capsid assembly and replication of the common cold virus. Nat Chem. 2018 Jun;10(6):599-606.Abstract external link opens in a new window

83. Hao Q, Dong BR, Wu T. Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Feb 3;(2):CD006895.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

84. Suzuki M, Yokoyama Y, Yamazaki H. Research into acupuncture for respiratory disease in Japan: a systematic review. Acupunct Med. 2009 Jun;27(2):54-60.Abstract external link opens in a new window

85. Simancas-Racines D, Franco JV, Guerra CV, et al. Vaccines for the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 May 18;(5):CD002190.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

86. Malesker MA, Callahan-Lyon P, Ireland B, et al. Pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment for acute cough associated with the common cold: CHEST expert panel report. Chest. 2017 Nov;152(5):1021-37.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

87. Butler CC, Kinnersley P, Hood K, et al. Clinical course of acute infection of the upper respiratory tract in children: cohort study. BMJ. 2003 Nov 8;327(7423):1088-9.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

88. Ebell MH, Lundgren J, Youngpairoj S. How long does a cough last? Comparing patients' expectations with data from a systematic review of the literature. Ann Fam Med. 2013 Jan-Feb;11(1):5-13.Full text external link opens in a new windowAbstract external link opens in a new window

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