Evidence

Evidence tables

This table is a summary of the analysis reported in a guideline (underpinned by a systematic review) that focuses on the above important clinical question.


Confidence in the evidence is very low or low where GRADE has been performed and the intervention may be more effective/beneficial than the comparison for key outcomes. However, this is uncertain and new evidence could change this in the future.


Population: Children with a cough associated with the common cold

Intervention: Honey

Comparison: Dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, no treatment, or placebo

OutcomeEffectiveness (BMJ rating)?Confidence in evidence (GRADE)?

Honey versus dextromethorphan

Frequency of cough

No statistically significant difference

Very Low

Severity of cough

No statistically significant difference

Very Low

Honey versus diphenhydramine

Frequency of cough

Favors intervention

Very Low

Severity of cough

Favors intervention

Very Low

Honey versus no treatment

Frequency of cough

Favors intervention

Very Low

Severity of cough

Favors intervention

Very Low

Honey versus placebo

Frequency of cough

Favors intervention

Low

Severity of cough

Favors intervention

Low

Recommendations as stated in the source guideline

In pediatric patients (aged 1-18 years) with cough due to the common cold, we suggest honey may offer more relief for cough symptoms than no treatment, diphenhydramine, or placebo, but it is not better than dextromethorphanᵃ.

Note

ᵃ The guideline committee noted that children <1 year of age should not be given honey and children <2 years of age should not be given dextromethorphan for cough symptoms.

This evidence table is related to the following section/s:

This table is a summary of the analysis reported in a guideline (underpinned by a systematic review) that focuses on the above important clinical question.


Confidence in the evidence is very low or low where GRADE has been performed and there may be no difference in effectiveness between the intervention and comparison for key outcomes. However, this is uncertain and new evidence could change this in the future.


Population: Children or adults with acute cough due to the common cold in community setting

Intervention: OTC medications (topical mentholated ointment or oral agave nectar)ᵃ

Comparison: Placebo

OutcomeEffectiveness (BMJ rating)?Confidence in evidence (GRADE)?

Topical mentholated ointment versus placebo

Change in cough frequencyᵇ

No statistically significant difference

Low

Change in cough severityᵇ

No statistically significant difference

Low

Agave nectar versus placebo

Change in cough frequencyᶜ

No statistically significant difference

Low

Change in cough severityᶜ

No statistically significant difference

Low

Recommendations as stated in the source guideline

For adult and pediatric patients with cough due to the common cold, we suggest against the use of OTC cough and cold medicines until they have been shown to make cough less severe or resolve sooner.

Note

ᵃ The guideline committee concluded that there was no evidence to support or refute the use of OTC antitussive agents, expectorants, mucolytic agents, or combination treatments for reducing cough in adults or children with the common cold. These interventions were assessed for effectiveness (and one systematic review, search date March 2014, was identified), but pooling of the evidence was not possible due to conflicting/variable results, heterogeneity, and differing drug preparations and dosing frequencies.

ᵇ Results are based on one randomized controlled trial which included a total of 138 children. 

ᶜ Results are based on one randomized controlled trial which included a total of 119 children.

This evidence table is related to the following section/s:

Cochrane Clinical Answers

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer