HIV infection

Last reviewed: 17 Apr 2022
Last updated: 22 Apr 2022
22 Apr 2022

First case of HIV cure reported in a woman after stem cell transplant

The World Health Organization has reported the first case of HIV cure in a woman living with HIV. The woman received a dual stem cell transplant for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukaemia, and has had no detectable HIV levels for 14 months after stopping antiretroviral therapy.

The patient received a transplant of umbilical cord blood stem cells with a CCR5 mutation, as well as a half-matched bone marrow transplant from an adult relative. She was engrafted with 100% cord blood cells at day 100 and had no detectable HIV. The patient stopped antiretroviral therapy at 37 months post transplant.

HIV cure (or remission) has been previously reported in two cases. The first case, known as the Berlin patient (a man with acute myelogenous leukaemia), was reported in 2009. He remained in remission for 12 years, but died of recurrent leukaemia in 2020. The second case, known as the London patient (a man with Hodgkin's lymphoma), was reported in 2019. He has remained in remission for more than 30 months.

This third case of HIV cure suggests that dual stem cell transplant could be considered in people living with HIV who require a stem cell transplant for other diseases. However, the CCR5 mutation is very rare and the chances of finding a suitable stem cell donor are very low.

Original source of update

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • fevers and night sweats
  • weight loss
  • skin rashes and post-inflammatory scars
  • oral ulcers, angular cheilitis, oral thrush, or oral hairy leukoplakia
  • diarrhoea
  • wasting syndrome
  • changes in mental status or neuropsychiatric function
  • recent hospital admissions
  • tuberculosis (TB)
  • medical comorbidities
  • sexual activity
  • generalised lymphadenopathy
  • Kaposi's sarcoma
  • genital STIs
  • chronic vaginal candidiasis
  • shingles
  • headaches
  • periodontal disease
  • retinal lesions on fundoscopy
  • shortness of breath on exertion, cyanosis on exertion, dry cough, silent chest on auscultation
More key diagnostic factors

Other diagnostic factors

  • current and prior use of other substances
  • peripheral neuropathy
  • recurrent herpes simplex
  • hepatomegaly or splenomegaly
  • meningeal signs (bacterial or viral meningitis)
Other diagnostic factors

Risk factors

  • needle sharing with intravenous drug use
  • unprotected receptive anal intercourse
  • unprotected receptive penile-vaginal sexual intercourse
  • percutaneous needle stick injury
  • high maternal viral load (mother to child transmission)
  • use of progestin-only injectable contraceptives
  • herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection
More risk factors

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • serum HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
  • serum HIV rapid test
  • HIV non-invasive tests
  • serum Western blot
  • serum p24 antigen
  • serum HIV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
  • CD4 count
  • serum viral load (HIV RNA)
  • drug resistance testing
  • pregnancy test
  • serum hepatitis B serology
  • serum hepatitis C serology
  • serum venereal disease research laboratory test
  • Treponema pallidum haemagglutination test
  • rapid plasma reagin
  • tuberculin skin test
  • FBC with differential
  • serum electrolytes
  • serum creatinine
  • urinalysis
More 1st investigations to order

Investigations to consider

  • chest x-ray
  • liver function tests (LFTs)
  • random or fasting lipid profile
  • random or fasting plasma glucose
  • hepatitis A serology (IgG)
  • toxoplasma serology (IgG)
  • gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing
  • human leukocyte antigen-B*5701 testing
More investigations to consider

Treatment algorithm

ACUTE

newly confirmed infection

ONGOING

virological or immunological treatment failure

Contributors

Authors

Chad J. Achenbach, MD, MPH

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Infectious Diseases

Northwestern Medicine

Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University

Chicago

IL

Disclosures

CJA has received funds for lecturing at educational events and reimbursement for travel to these lectures by ViiV pharmaceuticals. CJA has been paid for service on a Data Safety Monitoring Board by ABIVAX.

Acknowledgements

Dr Chad J. Achenbach would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Richard Rothman, Dr Michael Ehmann, Dr Linda-Gail Bekker, Dr Catherine Orrell, and Dr Lisa Capaldini, the previous contributors to this topic.

Disclosures

ME, LGB, and CO declare that they have no competing interests. RR attended a symposium/conference hosted by a funding agency, Gilead HIV FOCUS programme, from which he receives research funds. RR pays staff for an implementation/research programme grant from Gilead HIV FOCUS for development of HIV testing programmes in Emergency Departments. LC is on the speakers' bureau for the following pharmaceutical companies: GlaxoSmithKline, BMS, Merck, Gilead, Roche, Pfizer, Solvay, Lilly, Serrano, and Tibotec.

Peer reviewers

Marianne Harris, MD

Clinical Assistant Professor

University of British Columbia

Vancouver

Canada

Disclosures

MH is a member of an advisory board and/or speakers' bureau for Gilead Sciences Canada Inc, Merck Canada Inc, and ViiV Healthcare.

William Rodriguez, MD

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Harvard Medical School

Director of Research

Global Health Delivery Project

Harvard School of Public Health

Boston

MA

Disclosures

WR declares that he has no competing interests.

Jeremy Day, BChir, MB

Infectious Disease Physician

Oxford University Clinical Research Unit

Hospital for Tropical Diseases

Ho Chi Minh City

Vietnam

Disclosures

JD declares that he has no competing interests.

  • HIV infection images
  • Differentials

    • Infectious mononucleosis
    • Cytomegalovirus infection (CMV)
    • Influenza infection
    More Differentials
  • Guidelines

    • Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in pediatric HIV infection
    • Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in adults and adolescents with HIV
    More Guidelines
  • Patient leaflets

    HIV: what is it?

    HIV: testing

    More Patient leaflets
  • Videos

    Venepuncture and phlebotomy animated demonstration

    More videos
  • padlock-lockedLog in or subscribe to access all of BMJ Best Practice

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer