Last reviewed:October 2019
Last updated:October  2019

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • asymptomatic
  • candidal infections
  • skin infections
  • urinary tract infections

Other diagnostic factors

  • fatigue
  • blurred vision
  • polydipsia
  • polyphagia
  • polyuria
  • paraesthesias
  • nocturia
  • unintentional weight loss
  • acanthosis nigricans

Risk factors

  • older age
  • overweight/obesity
  • gestational diabetes
  • pre-diabetes
  • family history of type 2 diabetes
  • non-white ancestry
  • physical inactivity
  • polycystic ovary syndrome
  • hypertension
  • dyslipidaemia
  • cardiovascular disease
  • stress

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • HbA1c
  • fasting plasma glucose
  • random plasma glucose
  • 2-hour post-load glucose after 75 g oral glucose
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • fasting lipid profile
  • urine ketones
  • random C-peptide
  • urinary albumin excretion
  • serum creatinine and estimated GFR
  • ECG
  • ankle-brachial index (ABI)
  • dilated retinal examination
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Senior Clinical Investigator

HealthPartners Institute

Minneapolis

MN

Disclosures

PJO receives research funding from the National Institutes of Health on multiple projects. PJO is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

Senior Clinical Investigator

HealthPartners Institute

Minneapolis

MN

Disclosures

JMS-H is an author of a number of references cited in this topic. She is an inventor on a US patent for Disease Treatment Simulation, a simulation-based technology developed without commercial support to educate health providers on chronic disease management in a virtual environment.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Medical Director

Clinical Improvement Group Health Cooperative

Seattle

WA

Disclosures

DKM declares that he has no competing interests.

Associate Professor

Director of Diabetes and Endocrinology

Cairns Base Hospital and Diabetes Centre

Queensland

Australia

Disclosures

AKS declares that he has no competing interests.

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