最近审阅: 24 十月 2020
最近更新: 11 三月 2020

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 存在的危险因素
  • 体重减轻
  • 腹泻
  • 容量减少
  • 周围性或骶前水肿

其他诊断因素

  • 疲劳
  • 骨折
  • 餐后上腹痛或右上腹痛
  • 排尿困难或肾绞痛
  • 神经学检查异常
  • 黄疸和瘙痒
  • 皮肤表现
  • 夜盲症
  • 运动无力或步态改变
  • 近端肌肉无力
  • 过量出血
  • 意识模糊

危险因素

  • 肠切除
  • 广泛性腹部放射性损伤
  • 腹裂

诊断性检查

首要检查

  • 全血细胞计数 (FBC)
  • 血清电解质
  • 血清尿素和肌酐
  • 血清白蛋白
  • 血钙、锌、硒、叶酸
  • 维生素 A、B1、B2、B6、B12、C、D 和 E
  • 甲基丙二酸 (MMA)
  • INR
更多 首要检查

需考虑的检查

  • 血清肝转氨酶、碱性磷酸酶和胆红素(总胆红素和直接胆红素)
  • 尿液分析
  • 血清 D-乳酸
  • 粪便脂肪定量
  • 上消化道连续造影
  • 双能 X 线骨密度测量仪 (DXA) 扫描
  • 腹部超声
  • 腹部 CT
更多 需考虑的检查

治疗流程

撰稿人

Alan Buchman

Visiting Professor of Clinical Surgery and Medical Director of the Intestinal Transplant and Rehabilitation Center

University of Illinois at Chicago

Medical Director

Health Care Services Corporation

Chicago

IL

利益声明

AB is an author of references cited in this topic.

Dr Alan Buchman would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Michael Roth, a previous contributor to this topic. MR is an author of a reference cited in this topic.

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Associate Professor of Medicine

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

Director

Vanderbilt Center for Human Nutrition

Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Nashville

TN

利益声明

DS has been an advisor for B. Braun and Baxter Healthcare; has received lecture fees from Coram Healthcare, EMD Serono, and Nutrishare; has prepared a newsletter for Mayne Pharma; and has received research funding from Baxter Healthcare and NPS Pharmaceutical.

Hospital Dean

Intestinal Failure Unit

Hope Hospital

Salford

Manchester

UK

利益声明

Not disclosed. JS is the author of references cited in this topic.

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