只有 1/3 的概率能够找到致病病原体，因此需要应用广谱抗生素治疗预期病原菌。
中性粒细胞缺乏伴发热的定义为单次口腔温度测量值＞38.3°C（＞101°F）或体温≥38.0°C（≥100.4°F）持续超过 1 小时，伴中性粒细胞绝对计数（absolute neutrophil count，ANC）＜500 cells/μl，或预计 ANC 在未来 48 小时内减少至＜500 cells/μl。
Internist and Professor of Medicine
Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health
Division of Internal Medicine
The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center
KVIR has research grants from Merck, Inc., Shionogi, and JMI Laboratories for the performance of in-vitro studies of novel antimicrobial agents.
Specialist in Infectious Disease & Internal Medicine
Infectious Disease Institute, Soroka Medical Center
Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Health Sciences
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
LN has given two educational lectures sponsored by MSD.
Dr Kenneth Rolston and Dr Lior Nesher would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Caron Jacobson and Dr Joseph Antin, previous contributors to this topic.
CJ and JA declare that they have no competing interests.
Price Eminent Scholar and Professor of Medicine
Bone Marrow Transplant Program
Division of Hematology/Oncology
University of Florida College of Medicine
JW has been reimbursed by Pfizer, Merck, Astellas, and Enzon for speaking fees, fees for educational programs, and consulting.
Alfa Institute of Biomedical Sciences
MF declares that he has no competing interests.
Senior Lecturer in Haematology
Honorary Consultant in Medical Oncology
St George's University of London
RP has received speaker fees and been reimbursed by Roche, Amgen, Chigai, and Bayer for attending several conferences. RP is a co-author of the EORTC guidelines referenced in this topic.