最近审阅: 24 十月 2020
最近更新: 06 三月 2020

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 体位性眩晕
  • 体重减轻
  • 体位性低血压
  • 体位性心动过速
  • 休克体征

其他诊断因素

  • 排尿量减少
  • 腹泻
  • 呕吐
  • 黑粪
  • 便血
  • 大量胃肠道引流
  • 多尿
  • 经口摄入不足
  • 大量出汗
  • 烧伤
  • 肠梗阻
  • 重度胰腺炎
  • 碾压伤
  • 腹腔内出血
  • 疲劳
  • 口渴
  • 黏膜干燥
  • 肌肉痉挛
  • 腹痛
  • 胸痛
  • 意识模糊
  • 皮肤弹性降低

危险因素

  • 利尿疗法
  • 慢性肾病
  • 老年人
  • 意识状态改变
  • 环境高温

诊断性检查

首要检查

  • 全血细胞计数 (FBC)
  • 血清电解质
  • 血糖
  • 血清尿素
  • 血清肌酐
  • 尿液分析
  • 随机尿钠
  • 钠排泄分数 (FENa)
  • 随机尿氯
  • 随机尿肌酐
  • 随机尿渗透压
  • 直肠检查和大便潜血试验
更多 首要检查

需考虑的检查

  • 尿液尿素/尿素排泄分数 (FEurea)
  • 动脉血气
  • 鼻胃管灌洗
  • 粪便培养
  • 腹部超声
  • 腹部 CT 扫描
  • 上消化道内镜检查
  • 结肠镜检查
更多 需考虑的检查

新兴检查

  • 唾液渗透压
  • 即时磁弛豫成像
更多 新兴检查

治疗流程

撰稿人

Research Assistant

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension

Northwestern University

Chicago

IL 

利益声明

AM declares that he has no competing interests.

Research Associate

Northwestern University

Feinberg School of Medicine

Chicago

IL

利益声明

SKH is an author of a reference cited in this topic.

Professor

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension

Department of Internal Medicine

Northwestern Memorial Hospital

Chicago

IL

利益声明

DB is an author of a reference cited in this topic.

Dr Alonso Marquez, Dr Syed K. Haque, and Dr Daniel Batlle would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Maria Aurora Posadas Salas, Dr Jason Eckel, and Dr Arthur Greenberg, previous contributors to this topic.

利益声明

MPS, JE, and AG declare that they have no competing interests.

同行评议者展开全部内容

Renal Consultant

Infection Control Lead for Medical Directorate

Derby City Hospital

Derby

UK

利益声明

NK declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor

Chicago Medical School

Rosalind Franklin University

Lombard

IL

利益声明

IM declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor

Department of Internal Medicine

Division of Nephrology

University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics

Iowa City

IA

利益声明

MS declares that he has no competing interests.

Associate Director

Nephrology

Washington Hospital Center

Washington

DC

利益声明

JHV declares that she has no competing interests.

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