最近审阅: 24 十月 2020
最近更新: 13 八月 2019

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 存在的危险因素
  • 发热
  • 排痰性咳嗽
  • 心脏杂音
  • 空洞性(空瓮性)呼吸音

其他诊断因素

  • 胸膜炎性胸痛
  • 全身性症状
  • 恶病质
  • 苍白
  • 牙龈疾病
  • 口臭
  • 无咽反射
  • 呼吸困难
  • 咯血
  • 寒颤
  • 虚弱
  • 关节痛
  • 出血性病变
  • 吸气性湿啰音
  • 支气管呼吸音
  • 呼吸音减弱
  • 单侧固定干啰音

危险因素

  • 容易吸入胃内容物
  • 口腔卫生不佳和拔牙
  • 支气管阻塞
  • 免疫抑制
  • 慢性疾病
  • 肺外脓毒症
  • 肺炎

诊断性检查

首要检查

  • 全血细胞计数 (FBC)
  • 胸部 X 线检查 (CXR)
  • 痰液革兰氏染色
  • 痰培养
  • 血液培养
  • 脓胸液培养
更多 首要检查

需考虑的检查

  • 胸部 CT
  • 支气管镜检查
  • 防污染毛刷标本定量培养
  • 防污染支气管肺泡灌洗标本定量培养
  • 经皮针吸和培养
  • 痰液细胞学
  • 肺部超声
  • 超声心动图
  • D-二聚体快速 ELISA 检测
  • 胸部多排 CT
  • 通气-灌注扫描
更多 需考虑的检查

治疗流程

撰稿人

Ioannis P. Kioumis

Associate Professor of Pulmonary Medicine and Infectious Diseases

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Respiratory Medicine Clinic

General Hospital G. Papanikolaou

Thessaloniki

Greece

利益声明

IPK declares that he has no competing interests.

Georgia G. Pitsiou

Assistant Professor in Pulmonary Medicine

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

Respiratory Failure Unit

General Hospital G. Papanikolaou

Thessaloniki

Greece

利益声明

GGP declares that she has no competing interests.

同行评议者展开全部内容

Professor of Surgery

University of Louisville

Associate Chief of Staff for Research and Development

VAMC Louisville

Louisville

KY

利益声明

WGC declares that he has no competing interests.

Senior Lecturer and Consultant Physician

North Bristol Lung Centre

Southmead Hospital

Bristol

UK

利益声明

NM declares that he has no competing interests.

MRC Training Fellow and Specialist Registrar, Respiratory Medicine

Oxford Centre for Respiratory Medicine

Churchill Hospital

Oxford

UK

利益声明

NR declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Physician

Honorary Senior Lecturer

Imperial College Healthcare Trust

Hammersmith Hospital

London

UK

利益声明

PWI declares that he has no competing interests.

内容使用需遵循免责声明