最近审阅: 1 十一月 2020
最近更新: 09 七月 2019

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 存在的危险因素
  • 面部和上肢局部水肿
  • 呼吸困难
  • 面部充血
  • 咳嗽
  • 颈静脉怒张
  • 胸部静脉怒张
  • 声音嘶哑
  • 淋巴结肿大
  • 视力模糊
  • 喘鸣
  • 谵妄/嗜睡

其他诊断因素

  • 厌食
  • 体重减轻
  • 咯血
  • 头痛
  • 胸痛
  • 心智改变
  • 发热
  • 皮疹
  • 关节痛
  • 喉水肿
  • 发绀
  • 视神经乳头水肿
  • 昏迷

危险因素

  • 吸烟
  • 多重起搏器导线
  • 中心静脉导管/端口
  • 年龄>50 岁
  • 放疗

诊断性检查

首要检查

  • 胸部 X 线检查
  • 胸部 CT
  • 胸部 MRI
  • 上肢超声检查
更多 首要检查

需考虑的检查

  • 静脉造影术
  • 活检
  • 痰液细胞学
  • 胸腔穿刺术
  • 痰培养
  • 红细胞沉降率
  • C 反应蛋白
更多 需考虑的检查

治疗流程

撰稿人

Kul Aggarwal

Professor of Clinical Medicine

University of Missouri

Columbia

MO

利益声明

KA declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine

University of Missouri

Columbia

MO

利益声明

AKC declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor Kul Aggarwal and Dr Albert K Chan would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Nipun Arora and Lokesh Tejwani, previous contributors to this topic. NA declares that he has no competing interests.

同行评议者展开全部内容

Gill Foundation Professor of Interventional Cardiology

Director of Cardiac Catheterization Laboratories

Gill Heart Institute

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine

University of Kentucky

Lexington

KY

利益声明

DM declares that he has no competing interests.

Associate Professor

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Department of Cardiology

Houston

TX

利益声明

SWY declares that he has no competing interests.

Cardiology Specialist Registrar

The James Cook University Hospital

Middlesbrough

UK

利益声明

AT declares that he has no competing interests.

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