最后审阅: 5 十一月 2021
最后更新: 08 九月 2020

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 存在的危险因素
  • 膝关节肿胀
  • 感到膝关节不稳定或屈曲/交锁
  • 膝关节疼痛
  • 关节线触痛和关节线捻发音
  • McMurray试验阳性
  • Apley试验阳性
  • 过伸试验阳性

其他诊断因素

  • 慢性病例中的腘窝囊肿(贝克囊肿)
  • 关节活动度受限

危险因素

  • 急性外伤(扭伤)
  • 膝关节炎
  • 膝关节不稳定
  • 前交叉韧带损伤史
  • 膝关节对线差
  • 粗糙或不平坦的运动场地
  • 较差的地面或天气条件
  • 建筑工人和体力劳动者
  • 盘状半月板

诊断性检查

首要检查

  • MRI 扫描
  • X光平片:前后位(AP)X光片、外侧膝关节X光片、45度PA屈曲和水平线视图

治疗流程

急症处理

撰稿人

作者

Hideki Takeda, MD

Orthopedic Surgeon

Department of Sports Orthopedics

NTT Medical Center Tokyo

Tokyo

Japan

利益声明

HT declares that he has no competing interests.

鸣谢

Dr Hideki Takeda would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Lars Engebretsen and Dr Kevin R. Stone, previous contributors to this topic. LE declares that he has no competing interests. KRS is an author of several references cited in this topic.

同行评议者

Daniel Solomon, MD

Co-Director of Orthopedic Sports and Shoulder Service

Department of Orthopedic Surgery

Naval Medical Center San Diego

San Diego

CA

利益声明

DS declares that he has no competing interests.

Jung-Ro Yoon, MD

Orthopedic Surgeon

Department of Orthopedic Surgery

Seoul Veterans Hospital

Seoul

South Korea

利益声明

JRY declares that she has no competing interests.

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