最近审阅: 23 十月 2020
最近更新: 28 三月 2018

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 存在危险因素
  • 口渴
  • 毛细血管再充盈时间>3 秒
  • 皮肤弹性降低
  • 黏膜干燥
  • 异常精神状态或活动水平
  • 心动过速
  • 尿量异常
  • 呼吸频率升高或呼吸深度增加

其他诊断因素

  • 呕吐
  • 腹泻
  • 腹痛
  • 葡萄糖试纸条检测结果异常
  • 体核温度下降或发热
  • 血压异常
  • 瘀伤或被忽视的体征

危险因素

  • 呕吐和/或腹泻
  • 年龄<3 岁
  • 外伤
  • 烧伤>10% 体表面积
  • 1 型糖尿病
  • 经口摄入不良的既往史
  • 利尿剂使用既往史
  • 剧烈和长期运动

诊断性检查

需考虑的检查

  • 血清电解质
  • 血糖
  • 血清尿素/肌酐比值
  • 全血细胞计数 (FBC)
  • 尿液分析
  • 尿比重
  • 尿液渗透压
  • 尿液显微镜检查和培养
  • 血液培养
  • 动脉血气分析
  • 头部 CT 扫描
  • 腹部 CT 扫描
更多 需考虑的检查

治疗流程

撰稿人

Associate Professor

Pediatrics

Case Western Reserve University

Associate Vice Chair of Education

Director of Subspecialty Training Programs

Department of Pediatrics Fellowship Director

Division of Pediatric Critical Care

University Hospitals Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital

Cleveland

OH

利益声明

KM declares that she has no competing interests.

Pediatric Critical Care Fellow

Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

University Hospitals Rainbow Babies & Children’s Hospital

Cleveland

OH

利益声明

MRC declares that she has no competing interests.

Dr Katherine Mason and Dr Marla R. Carter would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Risha Moskalewicz, Dr Vincent J. Wang, Dr Naseem Sulayman, and Anne Stormorken, previous contributors to this monograph. VJW is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph. RM, NS, and AS declare that they have no competing interests.

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Assistant Professor of Pediatrics

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine

Emory University School of Medicine

Children's Healthcare of Atlanta

Atlanta

GA

利益声明

JAS declares that she has no competing interests.

Consultant Paediatric & Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

Great Ormond St Hospital for Children

London

UK

利益声明

JB is an author of a reference cited in this monograph.

Consultant Paediatric Anaesthetist

Department of Anaesthesia

Frenchay Hospital

Bristol

UK

利益声明

AERY declares that she has no competing interests.

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