X 光片：对所累及关节（更多地指定为膝关节和踝关节）最少进行 2 个体位的 X 光片检查用于诊断。
Henry G. Chambers, MD
Professor of Clinical Orthopedic Surgery
University of California, San Diego
Rady Children’s Hospital
HGC has acted as a consultant to OrthoPediatrics, undertaken research for Allergan, and is an associate editor for Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. HGC is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.
Dr Henry G. Chambers would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr James L. Carey, Dr Jon Divine, Dr Michael Nett, and Dr Cedric Ortiguera, the previous contributors to this topic. JLC is an author of a number of references cited in this topic. JD, MN, and CO declare that they have no competing interests.
James E. McGrory, MD
The Hughston Clinic PC
JEM declares that he has no competing interests.
Nicola Maffulli, MD, MS, PhD, FRCS(Orth)
Centre Lead and Professor of Sports and Exercise Medicine
Consultant Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgeon
Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry
Institute for Health Sciences Education
Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine
Queen Mary University of London
Mile End Hospital
NM declares that he has no competing interests.