最后审阅: 3 七月 2021
最后更新: 03 十一月 2020

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 存在的危险因素
  • 咳嗽
  • 呼吸急促
  • 哮鸣音
  • 肋间回缩、痰鸣音、鼻翼煽动

其他诊断因素

  • 鼻炎
  • 反复出现的临床发现
  • 易激惹、周身不适和喂养不良
  • 发热<40°C(<104°F)
  • 湿啰音
  • 呼吸暂停
  • 胸腹部运动不同步

危险因素

  • 婴幼儿大于3岁
  • 冬月
  • 早产或支气管肺发育不良
  • 被动吸烟暴露
  • 气道清除能力和功能障碍
  • 先天性心脏病
  • 免疫缺陷

诊断性检查

首要检查

  • 脉搏血氧测量测定法

需考虑的检查

  • 酶联免疫吸附测定 (ELISA) 快速抗原检测
  • 胸部 X 线检查
  • 逆转录酶聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)

新兴检查

  • 婴儿肺功能试验

治疗流程

撰稿人

作者

Howard Panitch, MD

Professor

Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Philadelphia

PA

利益声明

HP is a consultant for the development of a portable ventilator by Philips Respironics. He is a member of the American Thoracic Society's Guideline Committee, Long-Term Oxygen Therapy for Infants and Children, and Chair of the American College of Chest Physicians' Home Based Mechanical Ventilation and Neuromuscular Disease NetWork, a member of the ATS guideline committee on bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and current new guideline committee updating the BPD Statement. He is a member of the planning committee of the Pediatric Assembly of the American Thoracic Society, and receives royalties from Up-To-Date for the review of two topics.

鸣谢

Professor Panitch would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Isaac Desheng Liu, Dr Woon Li Seo, Dr Jennifer L. Nayak, Dr Caroline B. Hall, and Dr Clement L. Ren, previous contributors to this topic. IDL, WLS, JLN, and CLR declare that they have no competing interests. CBH is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

同行评议者

Robert Welliver, MD

Professor of Pediatrics

Women and Children's Hospital

Buffalo

NY

利益声明

RW declares that he has no competing interests.

Giovanni Piedimonte, MD

Wyeth Research Scholar Professor and Chair

Department of Pediatrics

WVU School of Medicine

Physician-in-Chief

WVU Children's Hospital

Morgantown

WV

利益声明

GP declares that he has no competing interests.

H. Cody Meissner, MD

Professor of Pediatrics

Infectious Disease

Department of Pediatrics

Tufts-New England Medical Center

Boston

MA

利益声明

HCM is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

John Henderson, MBBS

Professor of Paediatric Respiratory Medicine

University of Bristol

Bristol

UK

利益声明

JH declares that he has no competing interests.

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