变应性鼻炎

最后审阅: 2 十一月 2022
最后更新: 13 一月 2022

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 存在的危险因素
  • 喷嚏
  • 鼻痒
更多 关键诊断因素

其他诊断因素

  • 腭、喉、耳以及眼痒
  • 眼睛红、眼袋以及流泪
  • 疲乏和易激惹
  • 鼻塞
  • 鼻溢(流涕)
  • 变应性黑眼圈
  • 结膜充血
  • 眼部黏液分泌
  • 鼻上褶皱
  • 鼻黏膜苍白
  • 鼻黏膜和鼻甲肿胀
  • 大量的鼻分泌物
  • Dennie-Morgan 线(下眼睑下折痕)
其他诊断因素

危险因素

  • 其他特应性疾病或特应性家族史
  • 年龄< 20 岁
  • 气源性致敏原(花粉、霉菌、屋尘螨、污染)暴露
  • 动物毛屑暴露
  • 种族
  • 变应原皮肤点刺试验阳性
更多 危险因素

诊断性检查

首要检查

  • 抗组胺或者鼻内皮质类固醇试验性治疗
更多 首要检查

需考虑的检查

  • 变应原皮肤点刺试验
  • 体外特异性 IgE 检测
更多 需考虑的检查

治疗流程

急症处理

轻度或间歇性症状

持续性中至重度症状

持续性治疗

常规治疗无效或耐受性差

撰稿人

作者

Gary C. Steven, MD, PhD, CPI, FAAAAI, FACAAI, FAPCR

Medical Director

American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Registry

Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine

Medical College of Wisconsin

Adjunct Clinical Instructor

College of Nursing

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Allergy, Asthma & Sinus Center

Milwaukee

WI

利益声明

GCS has taken part in sponsored research for the ALK clinical trial of the house dust mite SLIT tablet for use in paediatric patients. He is a member of the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters Workgroup on the Allergic Rhinitis Practice Parameter.

鸣谢

Dr Gary C. Steven would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Alexander Greiner, a previous contributor to this topic.

利益声明

AG has received grant/research support from: AstraZeneca; Boehringer Ingelheim; Cephalon Circassia Ltd; Clement Clarke Cytos biotechnology; GlaxoSmithKline; Glenmark Specialty, S.A.; Hoffman-LaRoche/Genentech; HRA/Novartis; Janssen Research & Development; Kalypsys , Inc.; Lupin; Merck; Mylan Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Nestle (Nestec Ltd); Novartis Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.; Perrigo; Rigel Pharmaceuticals, Inc.; Roxane Laboratories Inc.; Shionogi Inc.; Sunovion TEVA Branded Pharmaceutical Products; UBC (United Biosource Corporation)/Amgen Pharmaceuticals; and sponsorship for pharmaceutical trials from Allergen Research Corporation/Aimmune Therapeutics, Inc. and AstraZeneca.

同行评议者

Mark Davis-Lorton, MD

Clinical Immunology Coordinator

Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy

Winthrop-University Hospital

Mineola

NY

利益声明

MDL declares that he has no competing interests.

Glenis Scadding, MD

Consultant Allergist/Rhinologist

Allergy & Rhinology Department

Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital

London

UK

利益声明

GS is a consultant/advisory board member for ALK, Britannia Pharmaceuticals, CMP Therapeutics, Grupo Uriach, GSK, Merck, Sanofi-Aventis, Schering Plough, and UCB. She has received research funds from ALK, GSK, UCB, and Schering Plough. She has given talks for ALK, GSK, Merck, Schering Plough, and UCB and has co-written articles for Schering Plough and GSK.

  • 鉴别诊断

    • 非变应性鼻炎
    • 急性鼻窦炎
    • 慢性鼻窦炎
    更多 鉴别诊断
  • 指南

    • 2020 年日本变应性鼻炎指南
    • 新一代变应性鼻炎及其对哮喘影响(ARIA)的变应性鼻炎指南:基于“建议分级的评估、制定和评价”(GRADE)和现实证据
    更多 指南
  • 患者教育信息

    枯草热

    花粉症:避免花粉和霉菌

    更多 患者教育信息
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