最近审阅: 七月 2020
最近更新: 十二月  2019

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 存在的危险因素
  • 打喷嚏
  • 鼻痒

其他诊断因素

  • 腭、喉、耳以及眼痒
  • 眼睛红、眼袋以及流泪
  • 疲乏和易激惹
  • 鼻塞
  • 鼻溢(流涕)
  • 变应性黑眼圈
  • 结膜充血
  • 眼部黏液分泌
  • 鼻上褶皱
  • 鼻黏膜苍白
  • 鼻黏膜和鼻甲肿胀
  • 大量的鼻分泌物
  • Dennie-Morgan 线(下眼睑下折痕)

危险因素

  • 特应性家族史
  • 年龄< 20 岁
  • 变应原皮肤点刺试验阳性
  • 在早期生活中,未充分暴露于动物和其他的微生物丰富的环境
  • 西方生活方式
  • 种族
  • 环境污染
  • 暴露于室内变应原,例如动物皮屑和尘螨
  • 母亲重度吸烟(在孩子 1 岁以内,每日抽 20 支或 20 支以上的烟)
  • 过早摄入食物或配方奶
  • 母乳喂养
  • 存在其他变应性疾病(湿疹、食物过敏、喘息/哮喘)

诊断性检查

首要检查

  • 抗组胺或者鼻内皮质类固醇试验性治疗
更多 首要检查

需考虑的检查

  • 变应原皮肤点刺试验
  • 体外特异性 IgE 检测
更多 需考虑的检查

治疗流程

撰稿人

Regent

American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

Medical Director

American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Registry

Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine

Medical College of Wisconsin

Adjunct Clinical Instructor

College of Nursing

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Executive Director

Fight Asthma Milwaukee Allies

Allergy, Asthma & Sinus Center

Milwaukee

WI

利益声明

GCS has taken part in sponsored research for the ALK clinical trial of the house dust mite SLIT tablet for use in paediatric patients. He is a member of the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters Workgroup on the Allergic Rhinitis Practice Parameter.

Dr Gary C. Steven would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Alexander Greiner, a previous contributor to this topic.

同行评议者展开全部内容

Clinical Immunology Coordinator

Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy

Winthrop-University Hospital

Mineola

NY

利益声明

MDL declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant Allergist/Rhinologist

Allergy & Rhinology Department

Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital

London

UK

利益声明

GS is a consultant/advisory board member for ALK, Britannia Pharmaceuticals, CMP Therapeutics, Groupo Uriach, GSK, Merck, Sanofi-Aventis, Schering Plough, and UCB. She has received research funds from ALK, GSK, UCB, and Schering Plough. She has given talks for ALK, GSK, Merck, Schering Plough, and UCB and has co-written articles for Schering Plough and GSK.

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