绝经

最后审阅: 19 四月 2022
最后更新: 13 一月 2022

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 存在的危险因素
  • 闭经
  • 月经周期不规律
  • 潮热和盗汗
  • 阴道症状
  • 情绪变化
更多 关键诊断因素

其他诊断因素

  • 睡眠障碍
  • 轻度健忘
  • 月经量过多
其他诊断因素

危险因素

  • 40 至 60 岁
  • 癌症治疗
  • 吸烟
  • 卵巢手术
  • 母亲的绝经年龄
更多 危险因素

诊断性检查

首要检查

  • 妊娠试验
更多 首要检查

需考虑的检查

  • 卵泡刺激素 (FSH)
  • 血清雌二醇
更多 需考虑的检查

治疗流程

急症处理

初期表现为轻度血管舒缩症状

持续性治疗

有子宫的女性出现中至重度潮热,伴或不伴性欲减退

无子宫的女性或过去 5 年放置过释放左炔诺孕酮的的宫内节育器,有中至重度潮热,伴或不伴性欲减退

仅有泌尿生殖道萎缩

单纯性欲减退

仅压力性尿失禁

撰稿人

作者

Heather Currie, MB BS, FRCOG, DRCOG, MRCGP

Clinical Director Women and Sexual Health

NHS Dumfries and Galloway

Dumfries and Galloway Royal Infirmary

Scotland

UK

利益声明

HC declares that she has received sponsorship, educational grants, speaker fees, funding for attendance at meetings, and advisory board fees from several pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical companies, which supports the running and development of Menopause Matters Ltd.

Haitham Hamoda, MBChB, MD, FRCO

Consultant Gynaecologist

Clinical Lead for Menopause Service

King's College Hospital NHS Trust

London

UK

利益声明

HH declares that he has acted in an advisory capacity for Bayer. HH received a research grant to support a clinical trial and support to attend academic conferences from Besins.

Bradford W. Fenton, MD, PhD, FACOG

Independence Park Medical Services

Anchorage

AK

利益声明

BWF is a consultant for Advance Medical and Kevin Trangle Associates and is on the Speakers Bureau for Abbvie.

鸣谢

Dr Heather Currie, Dr Haitham Hamoda, and Dr Bradford W. Fenton would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Rebekah Wang-Cheng, a previous contributor to this topic.

利益声明

RWC declares that she has no competing interests.

同行评议者

Nan Gillespie O’Connell, MD

Assistant Professor

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Virginia Commonwealth University

Richmond

VA

利益声明

NGOC declares that she has no competing interests.

Carolyn Simpkins, MD, PhD

Internist

Daniel Island

SC

利益声明

CS declares that she has no competing interests.

Edward Morris, MD

Consultant

Honorary Senior Lecturer and Clinical Director

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital

Norwich

UK

利益声明

EM declares that he has no competing interests.

Michelle Warren, MD

Professor of Medicine and Obstetrics & Gynecology

Obstetrics and Gynecology

Columbia University in New York Medical Center

New York

NY

利益声明

MW has received research funding from Ferring and Pfizer Wyeth; has acted as an advisory board consultant for Pfizer Wyeth, QuatRx, and Yoplait; and is on the speakers' bureau of Amgen, Upsher Smith, and Warner Chilcott. MW is also an author of a reference cited in this topic.

  • 鉴别诊断

    • 妊娠
    • 多囊卵巢综合征
    • 甲状腺功能亢进
    更多 鉴别诊断
  • 指南

    • 绝经:诊断和管理
    • 绝经:护士、助产士和健康访问员指南
    更多 指南
  • 患者教育信息

    Menopause: should I take HRT?

    Menopause: what is it?

    更多 患者教育信息
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