绝经

最后审阅: 7 九月 2022
最后更新: 13 一月 2022

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 存在的危险因素
  • 闭经
  • 月经周期不规律
  • 潮热和盗汗
  • 阴道症状
  • 情绪变化
更多 关键诊断因素

其他诊断因素

  • 睡眠障碍
  • 轻度健忘
  • 月经量过多
其他诊断因素

危险因素

  • 40 至 60 岁
  • 癌症治疗
  • 吸烟
  • 卵巢手术
  • 母亲的绝经年龄
更多 危险因素

诊断性检查

首要检查

  • 妊娠试验
更多 首要检查

需考虑的检查

  • 卵泡刺激素 (FSH)
  • 血清雌二醇
更多 需考虑的检查

治疗流程

急症处理

初期表现为轻度血管舒缩症状

持续性治疗

有子宫的女性出现中至重度潮热,伴或不伴性欲减退

无子宫的女性或过去 5 年放置过释放左炔诺孕酮的的宫内节育器,有中至重度潮热,伴或不伴性欲减退

仅有泌尿生殖道萎缩

仅压力性尿失禁

撰稿人

作者

Heather Currie, MB BS, FRCOG, DRCOG, MRCGP

Clinical Director Women and Sexual Health

NHS Dumfries and Galloway

Dumfries and Galloway Royal Infirmary

Scotland

UK

利益声明

HC declares that she has no competing interests.

Haitham Hamoda, MBChB, MD, FRCO

Consultant Gynaecologist

Clinical Lead for Menopause Service

King's College Hospital NHS Trust

London

UK

利益声明

HH declares that he has no competing interests.

Bradford W. Fenton, MD, PhD, FACOG

Independence Park Medical Services

Anchorage

AK

利益声明

BWF declares that he has no competing interests.

鸣谢

Dr Heather Currie, Dr Haitham Hamoda, and Dr Bradford W. Fenton would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Rebekah Wang-Cheng, a previous contributor to this topic.

利益声明

RWC declares that she has no competing interests.

同行评议者

Nan Gillespie O’Connell, MD

Assistant Professor

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Virginia Commonwealth University

Richmond

VA

利益声明

NGOC declares that she has no competing interests.

Carolyn Simpkins, MD, PhD

Internist

Daniel Island

SC

利益声明

CS declares that she has no competing interests.

Edward Morris, MD

Consultant

Honorary Senior Lecturer and Clinical Director

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital

Norwich

UK

利益声明

EM declares that he has no competing interests.

Michelle Warren, MD

Professor of Medicine and Obstetrics & Gynecology

Obstetrics and Gynecology

Columbia University in New York Medical Center

New York

NY

利益声明

MW has received research funding from Ferring and Pfizer Wyeth; has acted as an advisory board consultant for Pfizer Wyeth, QuatRx, and Yoplait; and is on the speakers' bureau of Amgen, Upsher Smith, and Warner Chilcott. MW is also an author of a reference cited in this topic.

  • 鉴别诊断

    • 妊娠
    • 多囊卵巢综合征
    • 甲状腺功能亢进
    更多 鉴别诊断
  • 指南

    • 绝经后女性骨质疏松症的管理:北美绝经学会 2021 年立场声明
    • 美国临床内分泌医师协会/美国内分泌学会绝经后骨质疏松症诊断和治疗临床实践指南——2020 年更新
    更多 指南
  • 患者教育信息

    绝经期:我应该接受激素替代疗法吗?

    绝经期:如何解释?

    更多 患者教育信息
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