最近审阅: 23 十月 2020
最近更新: 19 十二月 2019

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 存在的危险因素
  • 肢端疼痛/不适
  • 肢端感觉异常
  • 肢端苍白
  • 肢端出现潮红和/或青紫变色
  • 甲床毛细血管扩张
  • 界限清楚的变色
  • 放大甲床

其他诊断因素

  • 烧心
  • 吞咽困难
  • 手部肿胀
  • 皮肤紧绷
  • 关节痛
  • 光敏感性
  • 口腔/鼻腔溃疡
  • 脱发
  • 蝶形红斑
  • 指端硬化
  • 毛细血管扩张
  • 胸膜炎性胸痛
  • 肢端溃疡
  • 肢端凹坑
  • 肢端簇吸收
  • 指尖/手指坏疽
  • 指尖凸起疼痛的红色病变
  • 自动截肢

危险因素

  • 女性
  • 家族史
  • 结缔组织病
  • 振动损伤
  • Buerger 病
  • 长时间的寒冷暴露/冻伤
  • 寒冷气候
  • 吸烟
  • 缺血
  • 偏头痛
  • 青光眼

诊断性检查

首要检查

  • 临床诊断
  • 抗核抗体
  • 全血细胞计数(FBC)
  • 红细胞沉降率
  • 肌酐
  • 尿液分析
更多 首要检查

治疗流程

撰稿人

Janet Pope

Professor of Medicine

Division of Rheumatology

Department of Medicine

University of Western Ontario

Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry

Head

Division of Rheumatology

St. Joseph's Health Care

London

Ontario

Canada

利益声明

JP has attended advisory boards for Actelion, the manufacturer of bosentan. JP is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

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Reader in Rheumatology and Consultant Rheumatologist

Musculoskeletal Research Group

University of Manchester

Manchester

UK

利益声明

ALH has been a paid speaker for Actelion; a consultant for Actelion and Pfizer; and an investigator in studies sponsored by Actelion, Mediquest, and United Therapeutics. ALH is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

Consultant Rheumatologist

Department of Rheumatology

Freeman Hospital

Newcastle upon Tyne

UK

利益声明

BG declares that she has no competing interests.

Intern

Veterans Administration Hospital

Minneapolis

MN

利益声明

KO declares that he has no competing interests.

Associate Professor

Department of Medicine

Mayo Clinic

Rochester

MN

利益声明

TO declares that he has no competing interests.

Assistant Professor of Medicine

Division of Rheumatology

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Co-Director

Johns Hopkins Vasculitis Center

Baltimore

MD

利益声明

PS declares that he has no competing interests.

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