最近审阅: 23 十月 2020
最近更新: 22 五月 2020

小结

鉴别诊断

常见

  • 原发性甲状旁腺功能亢进
  • 恶性肿瘤
  • 多发性骨髓瘤

不常见

  • 家族性低尿钙性高钙血症
  • 维生素D中毒
  • 噻嗪类利尿剂
  • 慢性肾衰竭和继发性甲状旁腺功能亢进症
  • 甲状腺功能亢进
  • 维生素A过量
  • 乳碱综合征
  • 结节病
  • 长期制动
  • 佩吉特病

撰稿人

Consultant Endocrine and General Surgeon

National University Cancer Institute, Singapore

Singapore

利益声明

RP declares that he has no competing interests.

Fellow

Endocrine and Minimally invasive Surgery

National University Hospital

Singapore

利益声明

HS declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Rajeev Parameswaran and Dr Hirshikesh Salgaonkar would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Ronald Merrell, the previous contributor to this topic. RM declares that he has no competing interests.

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Director

Endocrinology

Department of Internal Medicine

VA Medical Center

University of Iowa

Iowa City

IA

利益声明

UK declares that he has no competing interests.

Clinical Professor

Department of Family Medicine

University of North Carolina

Chapel Hill

Assistant Program Director

MAHEC Rural Family Medicine Residency

Hendersonville

NC

利益声明

WM declares that he has no competing interests.

Consultant and Senior Lecturer

Endocrine Unit

Newcastle University and Royal Victoria Infirmary

Newcastle-upon-Tyne

UK

利益声明

RQ has been reimbursed by Amgen, the manufacturer of Cinacalcet, for attending a conference and for giving an educational seminar (total under £1,200 over past 3 years).

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