惊恐障碍

最后审阅: 26 四月 2022
最后更新: 21 四月 2021

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 存在的危险因素
  • 意想不到的发作
  • 忧虑和担忧
  • 回避行为
  • 心动过速
  • 精神障碍初级医疗保健(PRIME-MD)中的惊恐筛查为阳性
  • 惊恐障碍严重程度量表 (Panic Disorder Severity Scale, PDSS)
  • GAD-7的划界分≥10
更多 关键诊断因素

其他诊断因素

  • 心悸,胸痛和胸部不适
  • 恶心和腹痛
  • 头晕
  • 知觉异常
  • 呼吸道症状
  • 依靠安全线索
  • 感觉异常
  • 肌肉颤抖
  • 出汗
  • 昏厥
  • 发冷或潮热
其他诊断因素

危险因素

  • 一级亲属中有病史
  • 年龄 18-39 岁
  • 女性
  • 白种人
  • 重大生活事件
  • 共病障碍
  • 心理因素
  • 哮喘和呼吸变异性
  • 吸烟和咖啡因使用
  • 心脏异常
更多 危险因素

诊断性检查

首要检查

  • 无初始检查
更多 首要检查

需考虑的检查

  • 心电图 (ECG)
  • 血糖
  • 甲状腺功能检测
  • 毒理学筛查
更多 需考虑的检查

治疗流程

急症处理

急性惊恐发作

持续性治疗

惊恐障碍

惊恐发作不符合惊恐障碍

撰稿人

作者

Craig N. Sawchuk, PhD
Craig N. Sawchuk

Professor

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology

Mayo Clinic

Rochester

MN

利益声明

CNS declares that he has no competing interests.

Jason P. Veitengruber, MD
Jason P. Veitengruber

Associate Professor

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

University of Washington School of Medicine

Seattle

WA

利益声明

JPV declares that he has no competing interests.

同行评议者

Paul Blenkiron, BM BCh, MA

Consultant Psychiatrist

Leeds and York Partnership NHS Foundation Trust

Bootham Park Hospital

York

UK

利益声明

PB declares that he has no competing interests.

Jeffrey M. Lohr, PhD

Professor

Clinical Training Program

Department of Psychology

University of Arkansas

Fayetteville

AR

利益声明

JML declares that he has no competing interests.

Philip J. Cowen, MD, FRCPsych, FMedSci

Professor of Psychopharmacology

Warneford Hospital

Oxford

UK

利益声明

PJC declares that he has no competing interests.

Toshiaki A. Furukawa, MD, PhD

Professor and Chair

Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine

Graduate School of Medical Sciences

Nagoya City University

Nagoya

Japan

利益声明

TAF has received research funds and speaking fees from Astellas, Dai-Nippon, Sumitomo, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen, Meiji, Otsuka, Schering-Plough, and Yoshitomi. He was on a research advisory board for Meiji and Mochida, and is currently on research advisory boards for Sekisui chemicals and Takeda Science Foundation. He has received royalties from Igaku-Shion and Seiwa-Shoten Publishers. The Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology and the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare have also funded his research.

  • 鉴别诊断

    • 广场恐怖症
    • 特定恐惧症
    • 社会焦虑障碍
    更多 鉴别诊断
  • 指南

    • 成人广泛性焦虑障碍和惊恐障碍:管理
    • 成人广泛性焦虑障碍和惊恐障碍:管理
    更多 指南
  • 患者教育信息

    Panic attacks: what are they?

    Panic attacks: what treatments work?

    更多 患者教育信息
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