一线治疗方法包括自助、认知行为治疗、选择性 5-羟色胺再摄取抑制剂和 5-羟色胺-去甲肾上腺素再摄取抑制剂
惊恐障碍的特征是反复发作、不可预测的发作持续1个月以上，并担心再次发作或发作的后果。 惊恐发作包含突然发生强烈的躯体症状和焦虑的认知症状，这种发作可以由特定的暗示诱发或无法预料。 惊恐障碍的另一个特征是回避可能诱发惊恐感觉的情境
Craig N. Sawchuk, PhD
Department of Psychiatry and Psychology
CNS declares that he has no competing interests.
Jason P. Veitengruber, MD
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
University of Washington School of Medicine
JPV declares that he has no competing interests.
Paul Blenkiron, BM BCh, MA
Leeds and York Partnership NHS Foundation Trust
Bootham Park Hospital
PB declares that he has no competing interests.
Jeffrey M. Lohr, PhD
Clinical Training Program
Department of Psychology
University of Arkansas
JML declares that he has no competing interests.
Philip J. Cowen, MD, FRCPsych, FMedSci
Professor of Psychopharmacology
PJC declares that he has no competing interests.
Toshiaki A. Furukawa, MD, PhD
Professor and Chair
Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine
Graduate School of Medical Sciences
Nagoya City University
TAF has received research funds and speaking fees from Astellas, Dai-Nippon, Sumitomo, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen, Meiji, Otsuka, Schering-Plough, and Yoshitomi. He was on a research advisory board for Meiji and Mochida, and is currently on research advisory boards for Sekisui chemicals and Takeda Science Foundation. He has received royalties from Igaku-Shion and Seiwa-Shoten Publishers. The Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology and the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare have also funded his research.