最后审阅: 30 十月 2021
最后更新: 25 九月 2020

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 儿童痫样发作家族史
  • 凝视发作,持续 5 至 10 秒;每天数次,无先兆/发作后状态
  • 儿童期发病
  • 体格检查结果正常
  • 过度通气诱导的癫痫发作

其他诊断因素

  • 简单自动症
  • 近期学习成绩下降
  • 复杂自动症
  • 早发型(4 岁之前)

危险因素

  • 儿童失神癫痫或青少年肌阵挛癫痫家族史/遗传史
  • 获得性脑损伤:例如缺氧-缺血、外伤、感染
  • 其他先天性代谢障碍、结构性缺陷、染色体异常
  • 发育迟缓或精神发育迟滞
  • 女性

诊断性检查

需考虑的检查

  • 颅脑 MRI 扫描
  • 代谢性疾病检测(例如血清氨基酸、尿有机酸、乳酸/丙酮酸或特定酶试验)
  • 脑脊液和血清中的葡萄糖

治疗流程

撰稿人

作者

Judith L. Z. Weisenberg, MD

Assistant Professor of Neurology

Washington University Medical School

St. Louis

MO

利益声明

JLZW receives 2% salary support from Marinus Pharmaceuticals as site PI for the Marigold Study; 2% salary support from the International Foundation of CDKL5 Research; and 1% salary support as site sub-PHI for the Rett Syndrome Natural History Study. These are all paid to Washington University in St. Louis. JLZW declares that these have no direct relationship to this topic.

鸣谢

Dr Judith L. Z. Weisenberg would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Michael Wong, a previous contributor to this topic. MW declares that he has no competing interests.

同行评议者

Anita Devlin, MBBS, MD

Consultant Paediatric Neurologist

Royal Victoria Infirmary

NHS Foundation Trust

Newcastle-upon-Tyne

UK

利益声明

AD and two epilepsy nurses from her department have been reimbursed by UCB Pharma, the manufacturer of levetiracetum, for attending several conferences. One of the epilepsy nurses received a one-off sponsorship payment from UCB Pharma to cover the initial set-up costs of the adolescent epilepsy support group. One epilepsy nurse has been reimbursed by Cyberonics, the manufacturer of vagal nerve stimulators, for attending one or more conferences.

Cigdem Akman, MD

Division of Pediatric Neurology

Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons

New York

NY

利益声明

CA declares that he has no competing interests.

Angus A. Wilfong, MD

Associate Professor

Pediatrics and Neurology

Baylor College of Medicine

Medical Director

Comprehensive Epilepsy Program

Texas Children's Hospital

Houston

TX

利益声明

AAW declares that he has no competing interests.

Helen Cross, MB, ChB, PhD, FRCP, FRCPCH

Head of Neurosciences Unit

The Prince of Wales’s Chair of Childhood Epilepsy

National Centre for Young People with Epilepsy

London

UK

利益声明

HC has received research funds from HAS, Epilepsy Research UK, SHS, and the Milk Development Council. She has received funding for an epilepsy training fellowship from UCB and Eisai. She has also received travel funding from Eisai, UCB, and GlaxoSmithKline.

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