最近审阅: 23 十月 2020
最近更新: 31 五月 2018

小结

定义

病史和体格检查

关键诊断因素

  • 存在的危险因素
  • 在过去 72 小时内暴露于 HIV
  • 安全套破裂、脱落或未使用
  • 源患者的射精史
  • 外伤或皮肤破损
  • 生殖器溃疡
  • 来自 HIV 感染高危群体的源患者
  • 来自 HIV 高流行率地区的源患者
  • 已暴露人员的高危性生活史
  • 在源患者中可检测到 HIV 病毒载量

其他诊断因素

  • 源患者的 HIV 检测阴性既往史
  • 合并肝炎感染的源患者
  • 源患者中 HIV 对抗病毒药物的耐药性
  • 正在使用的处方或非处方药物
  • 药物过敏史
  • 流感样疾病

危险因素

  • 来自 HIV 阳性供者的输血
  • 共用注射器具
  • 针头刺伤
  • 肛交的被动方
  • 阴道性交的被动方
  • 粘膜暴露
  • 肛交的主动方
  • 阴道性交的主动方
  • 口交的被动方(吮吸阴茎)

诊断性检查

首要检查

  • HIV 抗原/抗体血液检测(血液 ELISA 或 EIA)
  • HIV 床旁快速 (POCT) 检测
  • 肾功能检查
  • 血清天冬氨酸氨基转移酶或丙氨酸氨基转移酶
  • 乙型肝炎血清学检查
  • 丙型肝炎血清学检查
  • 梅毒血清学检查
  • 妊娠试验
更多 首要检查

需考虑的检查

  • 如果出现 HIV 血清转换症状,检测 HIV 病毒载量
更多 需考虑的检查

治疗流程

撰稿人

Genitourinary and HIV Specialist Registrar

Department of HIV

Harrison Wing

Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital NHS Foundation Trust

London

UK

利益声明

MJL declares no competing interests.

HIV consultant and Honorary Senior Lecturer KCL

Department of HIV

Harrison Wing

Guy’s and St Thomas Hospital NHS Foundation Trust

London

UK

利益声明

JF has received scientific grants from Gilead Sciences and Merck.

Dr Ming Jie Lee and Dr Julie Fox would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Jennifer A. Johnson, Dr Paul Sax, Dr Rebecca Plank, Dr Michael Brady, Dr Emily Cheserem, and Dr Claire M. Naftalin, the previous contributors to this monograph. JAJ declares that she has no competing interests. PS serves as a consultant for Abbott, BMS, Gilead, GSK, Merck, and Janssen. He receives grant support from BMS, Gilead, and GSK. EC has been sponsored by GlaxoSmithKline for several conferences and sponsored by Gilead Sciences, Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceuticals, and Abbott Laboratories to attend various educational programs. CMN has been sponsored by Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceuticals to attend an educational program. CMN is an author of a reference cited in this monograph. MB not disclosed. RP declares that she has no competing interests.

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Clinical Director

HIV/AIDS Services

Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust

London

UK

利益声明

MJ declares that she has no competing interests.

Chief Medical Officer

Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND)

Campus Biotech

Geneva

Switzerland

利益声明

Not disclosed.

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