Última revisión: 29 Oct 2020
Última actualización: 03 Nov 2020

Resumen

Definición

Anamnesis y exploración física

Factores clave de diagnóstico

  • presencia de factores de riesgo
  • tos
  • taquipnea
  • sibilancia
  • retracciones, gruñidos y aleteo nasal

Otros factores para el diagnóstico

  • rinitis
  • fluctuación de los hallazgos clínicos
  • irritabilidad, malestar general y mala alimentación
  • fiebre <40 °C (<104 °F)
  • crepitaciones
  • apnea
  • asincronía toracoabdominal

Factores de riesgo

  • lactantes <3 años
  • meses de invierno
  • prematuridad o displasia broncopulmonar
  • exposición pasiva al humo del tabaco
  • alteración de la depuración y la función de las vías respiratorias
  • cardiopatía congénita
  • inmunodeficiencia

Pruebas diagnósticas

Pruebas que considerar

  • detección de antígeno mediante ensayo de inmunoabsorción enzimática (ELISA) rápido
  • radiografía de tórax
  • reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con transcriptasa inversa (RT-PCR)
Más pruebas que considerar

Pruebas emergentes

  • pruebas de función pulmonar en lactantes
Más pruebas emergentes

Algoritmo de tratamiento

Colaboradores

Professor

Division of Pulmonary Medicine

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Philadelphia

PA

Conflicto de intereses

HP is a consultant for the development of a portable ventilator by Philips Respironics. He is a member of the American Thoracic Society's Guideline Committee, Long-Term Oxygen Therapy for Infants and Children, and Chair of the American College of Chest Physicians' Home Based Mechanical Ventilation and Neuromuscular Disease NetWork, a member of the ATS guideline committee on bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and current new guideline committee updating the BPD Statement. He is a member of the planning committee of the Pediatric Assembly of the American Thoracic Society, and receives royalties from Up-To-Date for the review of two topics.

Professor Panitch would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Isaac Desheng Liu, Dr Woon Li Seo, Dr Jennifer L. Nayak, Dr Caroline B. Hall, and Dr Clement L. Ren, previous contributors to this topic. IDL, WLS, JLN, and CLR declare that they have no competing interests. CBH is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

Revisores paresVER TODO

Professor of Pediatrics

Women and Children's Hospital

Buffalo

NY

Conflicto de intereses

RW declares that he has no competing interests.

Wyeth Research Scholar Professor and Chair

Department of Pediatrics

WVU School of Medicine

Physician-in-Chief

WVU Children's Hospital

Morgantown

WV

Conflicto de intereses

GP declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Pediatrics

Infectious Disease

Department of Pediatrics

Tufts-New England Medical Center

Boston

MA

Conflicto de intereses

HCM is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

Professor of Paediatric Respiratory Medicine

University of Bristol

Bristol

UK

Conflicto de intereses

JH declares that he has no competing interests.

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