Diabetes tipo 2 en adultos

Última revisión: 6 Sep 2022
Última actualización: 22 Feb 2022

Resumen

Definición

Anamnesis y examen

Principales factores de diagnóstico

  • presencia de factores de riesgo
  • asintomático
  • polidipsia
  • poliuria
Más principales factores de diagnóstico

Otros factores de diagnóstico

  • infecciones por Cándida
  • infecciones de la piel
  • infecciones del tracto urinario
  • fatiga
  • visión borrosa
  • polifagia
  • pérdida de peso involuntaria
  • parestesias
  • acantosis pigmentaria
Otros factores de diagnóstico

Factores de riesgo

  • edad avanzada
  • sobrepeso/obesidad
  • diabetes gestacional
  • hiperglucemia no diabética
  • antecedentes familiares de diabetes tipo 2
  • ascendencia no blanca
  • síndrome del ovario poliquístico
  • hipertensión
  • dislipidemia
  • enfermedad cardiovascular
  • estrés
Más factores de riesgo

Pruebas diagnósticas

Primeras pruebas diagnósticas para solicitar

  • glucosa plasmática en ayunas
  • HbA1c
  • glucosa poscarga de 2 horas después de 75 g de glucosa oral
  • glucosa plasmática al azar
Más primeras pruebas diagnósticas para solicitar

Pruebas diagnósticas que deben considerarse

  • lipidograma en ayunas
  • cetonas en orina
  • relación albúmina/creatinina (ACR)
  • creatinina sérica y TFG estimada
  • electrocardiograma (ECG)
  • índice de presión tobillo-brazo (ABPI)
  • péptido C aleatorio
  • pruebas de autoanticuerpos
  • pruebas de función hepática
Más pruebas diagnósticas que deben considerarse

Algoritmo de tratamiento

Inicial

en el diagnóstico inicial

Agudo

metformina tolerada y no contraindicada: no embarazada

metformina contraindicada o no tolerada: no embarazada

embarazadas

Colaboradores

Autores

Amar Puttanna, MBChB, MRCP

Diabetes and Endocrinology Consultant

Good Hope Hospital

University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Trust

UK

Divulgaciones

AP has received honoraria from Napp, Novo Nordisk, Sanofi, Lilly-Boehringer Ingelheim, Daiichi-Sankyo, and AstraZeneca for presentation at meetings, conference registration or participating in advisory boards.

Partha Kar, OBE, MBBS MD, FRCP

Consultant Endocrinologist

Portsmouth Hospitals University NHS Trust

National Specialty Advisor, Diabetes, NHS England

UK

Divulgaciones

PK has sat on advisory boards and attended events reimbursed by Novo Nordisk, Eli Lilly, and Sanofi.

Agradecimientos

Dr Amar Puttanna and Dr Partha Kar would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Patrick J. O'Connor and Dr JoAnn M. Sperl-Hillen, the previous contributors to this topic.

Divulgaciones

PJO receives research funding from the National Institutes of Health on multiple projects and is an author of a number of references cited in this topic. JMS-H is an author of a number of references cited in this topic and is an inventor on a US patent for Disease Treatment Simulation, a simulation-based technology developed without commercial support to educate health providers on chronic disease management in a virtual environment.

Revisores por pares

Vinod Patel, MD, FRCP, FHEA, MRCGP, DRCOG, MBChB, BSc (Hons), RCPathME

Professor, Diabetes and Clinical Skills

Warwick Medical School

University of Warwick

Hon Consultant in Endocrinology and Diabetes, Acute Medicine, Medical Obstetrics

Diabetes and Endocrinology Centre

George Eliot Hospital NHS Trust

Nuneaton

Clinical Director for Diabetes West Midlands Clinical Networks & Clinical Senate

NHS England and NHS Improvement - Midlands

UK

Divulgaciones

VP declares he has worked with most of the large pharmaceutical industry groups over the years with the majority of the work being in education of healthcare professionals in diabetes care. This includes Novo Nordisk, Eli Lily, MSD, BI, Sanofi, Napp, Internis, Takeda, and AZ. VP has been part of advisory board work on occasions. VP has received conference arrangements and lecture fees. VP is a trustee of the charity South Asian Health Foundation.

Gregory Lip, MD, FRCP, DFM, FACC, FESC, FEHRA

Price-Evans Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine

University of Liverpool

Senior Investigator

National Institute for Health Research

UK

Distinguished Professor

Faculty of Medicine

Aalborg University

Denmark

Adjunct Professor

Yonsei University

Seoul

South Korea

Divulgaciones

GL has acted as a consultant and speaker for BMS/Pfizer, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Daiichi-Sankyo.

  • Diabetes tipo 2 en adultos images
  • Diferenciales

    • Hiperglucemia no diabética (prediabetes)
    • Diabetes mellitus, tipo 1
    • Diabetes autoinmunitaria latente en adultos (LADA)
    Más Diferenciales
  • Guías de práctica clínica

    • Type 2 diabetes in adults: management
    • Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases
    Más Guías de práctica clínica
  • Folletos para el paciente

    Prediabetes

    Diabetes: ¿Qué es?

    Más Folletos para el paciente
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