Last reviewed: 19 Dec 2021
Last updated: 15 Dec 2021



History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • wing-shaped conjunctival overgrowth onto corneal surface
  • history of chronic UV light exposure
  • ocular irritation, burning, and tearing

Other diagnostic factors

  • altered ocular cosmesis
  • blurred vision
  • double vision

Risk factors

  • chronic UV light exposure
  • family history of pterygium
  • chronic ocular irritants
  • human papilloma and Epstein-Barr virus infection

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • slit-lamp examination
  • fluorescein staining

Treatment algorithm



David O'Brart, MBBS, DO, MD, FRCS, FRCOphth
David O'Brart

Consultant Ophthalmic Surgeon

Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust

Professor of Corneal Science

Kings College

University of London




DB holds a non-commercial research grant with Rayner Ltd. through his NHS Trust for cataract surgery research within the NHS. He has equity in the medical imaging company Sparca Inc. and is on their medical advisory board. DB is currently negotiating with Johnson and Johnson for a non-commercial research grant for further cataract surgery research within the NHS. DB has held non-commercial research grants with Alcon Inc. and Avedro Inc. (now Glaukos Inc.) in the past 5 years for research within the NHS through his NHS Trust. He is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

Peer reviewers

Carlos E. Diaz, MD

Assistant Professor

Department of Ophthalmology

University of Texas Health Science Center

San Antonio



CED is a speaker for Bio-Tissue, the developer of Amniograft amniotic membrane.

Robert E. MacLaren, DPhil, DipEd, FRCOphth, FRCS

Professor of Ophthalmology

Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology

University Of Oxford

John Radcliffe Hospital




REM declares that he has no competing interests.

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